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Full text of "Tammany Legend (Tamanend): Historic Story of the "St. Tammany" Tradition in American Government and What Democracy Owes to Aboriginal American Ideals. Based on Original Native Sources Covering, Historically, 600 A.D. to the Present (1938) [Miscellaneous Works]"

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W».  H.  STRANG 




Idealized  composite  portrait  by  Fritz  Bade  from  description 
of  Tamanend  III,  William  Perm's  friend,  and  the  legends  of 
the  Indians  concerning  the  other  two  kings  of  same  name.  Por- 
traits of  modern  Lenape  types  used  as  models.  Tamanend's 
portrait  is  typical  of  Lenape  Manhood  at  time  of  last  entry  in 
the  Red  Score. 








Copyright,  1938,  by  Joseph  White  Norwood 


Thb  Meador  Press,  Boston,  Massachusetts 


My  Wife 


Special  acknowledgments  are  made  to  Col. 
Lucien  Beckner,  geologist  and  Indian  author- 
ity, for  generous  cooperation  in  working  out 
the  chronology  of  the  Red  Score;  William 
Grant  Wilson  for  wise  and  friendly  advice  on 
publication  matters;  John  Collier,  Indian 
Commissioner  for  data  on  present  location 
and  condition  of  Indian  tribes;  Fritz  Bade, 
for  the  idealized  and  composite  portrait  of 


Often  in  the  youth  of  this  Republic,  American  "shirt- 
sleeve diplomacy"  astonished,  amused  and  sometimes 
shocked  European  countries.  Our  simplicity  that  called 
a  spade  a  spade  and  demanded  that  answers  be  Yes  or 
No,  was  taken  as  evidence  of  our  semi-barbarism. 

After  we  grew  powerful  and  prosperous  and  some- 
what more  urbane  of  manner,  these  same  Europeans 
referred  to  our  "dollar  diplomacy"  and  deplored  our 
lack  of  ideals.  The  World  War  not  only  failed  to 
undeceive  them  but  won  for  us  the  nickname  of  "Uncle 
Shylock,"  seemingly  because  the  war  was  fought  on  our 
money  and  we  merely  suggested  that  some  of  it  be  paid 

Our  participation  in  the  war  impressed  our  friends 
across  the  ocean  not  at  all  as  an  act  inspired  by  those 
high  ideals  that  caused  our  soldiers  to  announce 
"LaFayette  We  Are  Here,"  and  President  Wilson  to 
pen  his  many  historic  documents.  On  the  contrary, 
our  allies  were  irritated,  especially  after  the  event,  by 
the  lateness  of  our  arrival  on  the  battle  field,  and  have 
been  scolding  us  roundly  ever  since. 

All  that  America  seems  to  have  "won"  in  this  riot 
of  nations  is  the  respect  of  its  foes  and  itself,  the  envy, 
ingratitude  and  dislike  of  its  allies,  and  the  right  to 
henceforth  bestow  its  friendship  and  largess  where  it 

The  Rest  of  the  world  neither  knows  nor  cares  to 
understand  American  ideals. 


There  is  something  in  our  mental  and  spiritual  life 
that  really  makes  it  impossible  for  them  to  do  so.  They 
never  had  this  something  in  their  lives. 

Those  who  have  attempted  to  pattern  Republics 
after  the  American  plan  have  signally  failed. 

When  we  furnished  them  blueprints  for  a  League  of 
Nations  they  found  it  impossible  to  build. 

Our  apostleship  of  peace  is  just  another  silly  idea  of 
"those  crazy  Americans." 

The  Monroe  Doctrine  and  similar  idealistic  policies, 
when  interpreted  and  adapted  by  others,  result  in 

Our  refusal  to  engage  in  entangling  foreign  alliances 
is  hailed  as  an  exhibition  of  complete  selfishness. 

What  Is  This  Mysterious  Kink  in  American 
Psychology  That  Other  People  Find  Impossible 
to  Understand?     And  Where  Did  We  Get  It? 

This  book  answers  both  these  questions. 

To  the  first,  the  answer  is,  that  the  American  ideals 
of  human  right  to  "life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of 
happiness,"  spring  chiefly  from  original  American 
sources  and  were  developed  on  American  soil  for  untold 
centuries  before  Europeans  arrived  on  this  continent. 

In  so  far  as  they  are  colored  by  European  ideals 
concerning  human  rights,  Europeans  comprehend  them, 
and  only  to  that  extent. 

To  the  second  question,  the  answer  is  that  modern 
America  received  these  ideals  from  Ancient  America 
of  the  Stone  Age. 

These  ideals  are  therefore  so  distinctly  native  to  the 
soil  that  they  should  be  known  as  the  first  Americans 
knew  them,  by  a  name  that  completely  symbolizes  them. 

This  name  is  Tamanend. 

There  were  three  historical  personages  bearing  this 


name.  They  were  elected  rulers,  whose  services  to  their 
nation  in  times  of  great  stress  won  for  them  such  uni- 
versal love  and  admiration  that  the  peaceful  policies 
they  successfully  pursued  were  symbolized  by  the  name. 

Tamanend  I  had  his  seat  at  Wisawana  where  now 
the  Yellow  River  of  Iowa  flows  into  the  Mississippi 
River.     He  flourished  in  the  tenth  century. 

Tamanend  II  ruled  from  the  banks  of  the  Susque- 
hanna in  Pennsylvania. 

Tamanend  III  was  friend  and  confidant  of  William 
Penn,  founder  of  the  City  of  Brotherly  Love.  The 
great  Quaker  was  perhaps  the  first  white  man  to  under- 
stand the  native  ideals  of  Tamanend  and  himself  be- 
came a  legendary  figure  among  Indians  all  over  the 

In  the  following  pages  we  attempt  to  show  the 
development  of  the  Tamanend  ideal  from  history  and 
legend  of  the  Indian  himself. 

The  historical  portion  includes  the  story  of  that 
singular  Delaware  record  known  as  the  Walam  Olum 
or  Red  Score,  over  which  students  have  puzzled  for 
more  than  a  century.  As  we  interpret  it  by  the  aid  of 
legend,  it  becomes  the  key  to  aboriginal  American 
History  in  North  America  from  the  sixth  to  the  seven- 
teenth century. 

Among  the  legends  which  explain  details  of  the 
historical  record,  are  those  relating  to  a  secret  society 
into  which  white  men  have  never  been  admitted,  but 
which  are  of  such  importance  to  our  story,  that  they 
must  be  taken  into  consideration. 

This  secret  society  was  the  "Priests  House,"  es- 
tablished among  all  Indian  nations  on  this  continent 
apparently,  for  untold  centuries  prior  to  the  advent  of 
the   white   man.      From   it   sprang   the   ritual   of  the 


"Calumet"  or  so  called  Peace  Pipe,  to  be  bearer  of 
which  was  high  honor. 

After  showing  the  development  of  the  Tamanend 
ideal  to  the  time  the  first  European  colonists  settled  on 
these  shores,  we  shall  follow  its  course  through  Colonial 
and  American  history  until  we  find  it  so  definitely  in- 
corporated into  the  life  of  this  nation,  that  as  Americans 
we  may  better  understand  ourselves  and  be  the  prouder 
for  it. 

And  it  may  be  possible,  should  we  further  develop 
this  ideal,  that  other  nations  will  also  understand  us 



I      Captain  White  Eyes  and  the  Spirit  of  1776  15 

II     Tamanend  III  and  William  Penn 25 

III  Before  Tamanend 42 

IV  Tamanend  at  Wisawana 57 

V     Opekasit  at  Fish  River 64 

VI     Tamanend  II 76 

VII     Mistakes  of  Man  Who  Made  Mistakes    .  84 

VIII     The  Coming  of  the  Whites 91 

IX     Religion  and  Laws  of  the  Red  Man 117 

X     The  Calumet  and  Wampum 136 

XI     The  Liberty  Boys  and  St.  Tammany  ....  142 

XII     The  Walam  Olum  or  Red  Score 148 

Appendix  Notes 198 




Captain  White  Eyes  and  the  Spirit  of  1776 

England  and  its  American  Colonies  had  come  to  the 
parting  of  the  ways.    The  year  was  1775. 

Koguethagechton,  Chief  Counsellor  to  Netawatwes, 
Grand  Sachem  of  the  Delawares  pondered  on  the  fast 
gathering  war  clouds  now  darkening  the  sky  over  the 
Americans.    He  knew  many  of  them  well  and  favorably. 

Were  they  not  all  children  of  the  Great  Spirit?  Had 
not  the  Grand  Sachem,  Tamanend  himself,  called 
William  Penn,  founder  of  their  big  village,  "My  Elder 
Brother,"  in  token  of  the  unity  of  their  spirits?  Now 
these  people  of  the  13-Fires  were  in  rebellion  against 
their  King  across  the  great  sea,  and  all  Algonkin 
peoples,  including  even  the  Delawares,  were  allied  to 
that  Great  Father,  the  British  King,  by  sacred  treaties 
of  peace  over  which  the  "calumet,"  the  pipe  of  peace 
had  been  smoked. 

Strange  how  it  all  had  happened. 
Long  ago  tidings  had  come  from  far  southern  lands 
of  a  strange  white  race  that  repaid  hospitality  with 
death  and  destruction.  They  fought  with  fire  sticks, 
those  iron  men,  and  were  deemed  magicians  and  evil 

But  other  whites  had  come  directly  to  the  country  of 



the  Great  League  of  the  Lenni  Lenape  over  which 
Koguethagechton's  predecessors  had  ruled;  they  were 
different.  These  called  themselves  Frenchmen  and  they 
too  had  a  Great  Father  across  the  big  waters.  Also 
they  had  wonderful  magical  tricks  which  they  taught 
their  Red  Friends  to  use  in  the  hunt  and  sometimes 
against  their  enemies. 

The  French  made  alliance  with  the  Great  League  of 
the  Algonkin  nations.  It  was  a  matter  between  Kings 
and  Koguethagechton  was  counsellor  to  a  King — though 
the  fur  traders  and  long  hunters  called  him  White  Eyes. 
Those  Frenchmen  had  been  true  to  that  alliance  against 
the  Iroquois  and  Sioux,  just  as  the  Algonkins  fought 
against  the  English  because  they  were  enemies  of  the 

Then,  other  white  men  came,  who  called  themselves 
Dutch.  Eagerly  seeking  a  strong  alliance  with  whites 
who  owned  those  wonderful  guns,  the  Iroquois  League 
made  alliance  with  them.  And  after  that  came  the 
Englishmen  north  and  south.  What  Indian  nation  bore 
them  enmity  ?    Not  one. 

True,  they  could  not  be  allies  with  either  of  Algonkin 
or  Iroquois  because  they  did  not  seem  to  like  either  the 
French  or  the  Dutch.  But  they  were  welcomed  and 
given  seats  in  the  land  that  the  Great  Spirit  alone  owned. 
They  were  taught  and  fed  and  assured  of  friendship, 
so  long  as  they  respected  the  laws  of  that  land,  which 
were  given  by  the  Great  Spirit  himself. 

Yet,  it  had  been  caused,  that  the  English  quarreled 
with  the  Dutch  and  conquered  them  so  that  in  time  the 
Iroquois,  allies  of  the  Dutch,  became  English  allies. 
Then  indeed  no  Algonkin  could  feel  safe  in  their  com- 
pany. Besides,  wars  arose  between  French  and  English 
over  causes  of  little  interest  to  the  Great  League.     But 


Algonkins  were  true  to  their  alliance  with  the  French. 

So,  the  Englishmen  built  these  13-Fires,  now  so  far 
removed  from  the  fighting  and  quarrels  in  the  west. 
The  French  they  had  driven  back  of  the  Alleghenies. 
There  was  still  much  good  hunting  land  there  and  the 
League  was  able  to  defend  it  with  French  help  or  with- 
out it.  The  western  division  of  the  League  could 
attend  to  that. 

But  the  English  had  not  been  satisfied  with  crowding 
from  their  fires  all  others  than  themselves.  In  the  last 
great  war  they  had  conquered  the  French!  They  and 
their  Iroquian  allies. 

Now  indeed  the  Algonkin  peoples  were  in  danger. 
Their  great  ally  defeated,  their  ancient  homelands  in 
the  Ohio  Valley  seized  by  the  Iroquois.  The  manito  of 
these  Redcoats  had  been  more  powerful  after  all. 

And  so,  in  time,  the  Great  League  accepted  alliance 
with  them  because  it  needed  at  least  a  neutral  position 
for  the  British  King  in  the  war  to  drive  out  the  Iroquois. 
These  whites  now  had  no  powerful  white  enemies  to 
fight  and  little  they  seemed  to  care  about  the  quarrels 
between  their  Indian  allies. 

When  the  Algonkin  League  recaptured  the  Ohio 
Valley,  the  British  did  not  even  seem  to  notice  it ! 

And  now  they  were  at  loggerheads  among  themselves. 

With  the  13-Fires  in  rebellion  against  their  lawful 
King,  what  should  the  position  of  the  Delaware  nation 

Koguethagechton's  first  duty  was  to  his  own  nation, 
which  lived  with  these  rebels.  Should  he  advise  the 
aged  Netawatwes  to  assume  the  ancient  titles  to  which 
his  position  as  chieftain  of  the  Delawares  entitled  him, 
Netawatwes  must  lead  his  people  against  the  rebel 
whites  with  whom  they  were  at  peace.    And  should  he 


do  so,  very  probably  his  pretensions  would  be  now 
laughed  at  in  the  west — so  long  had  it  been  since  any 
Grand  Sachem  from  the  East  had  interfered  with  the 
conduct  of  the  west. 

Here  was  but  a  quarrel  between  the  Great  Father 
across  the  ocean  with  his  children  of  the  13-Fires.  Let 
them  settle  it.  Why  should  the  Indians  be  called  upon 
to  fight  in  that  quarrel? 

It  would  be  better  to  follow  the  path  of  wisdom  long 
ago  opened  by  Tamanend,  and  remain  friends  with  all, 
than  offer  counsel  to  either  side. 

Should  the  American  rebels  lose  their  fight  against 
their  lawful  King.  .  .  . 

Koguethagechton  slowly  removed  the  pipe  from  his 
mouth  and  his  eyes  narrowed.  Otherwise  he  remained 
motionless.  But  now  his  thoughts  raced  like  thunder 

Their  lawful  King — but  these  Americans  did  not 
like  that  King. 

Would  their  Grand  Council  depose  him  and  choose 
another,  as  Red  men  would  have  done  ?  No  one  seemed 
to  know. 

But  this,  Koguethagechton  knew;  all  these  young 
white  hunters  who  so  often  visited  him  for  counsel  or 
went  with  him  into  the  woods  and  down  the  streams 
were  friends  of  Tamanend.  Often  he  had  told  them  of 
that  great  King  and  the  more  they  heard  the  more  they 
wanted  to  hear. 

The  Grand  Sachem  smiled  as  he  remembered  some  of 
the  astonishing  tales  his  white  friends  told  of  Tamanend 
to  others  who  were  not  admitted  to  their  secret  circles — 
such  tales  of  wonder  working  as  the  Delaware  them- 
selves had  never  imagined. 

For  many  years  Tamanend  had  been  the  pattern 


upon  which  the  Colonial  soldiers  organized  their  home 
guard  units.  They  explained  that  they  admired 
this  ancient  sage  and  warrior  of  their  Red  Brothers 
because  he  had  been  the  friend  of  all  people,  and  not 
just  the  friend  of  officers.  The  white  brother  had  his 
joke  about  this  for  he  had  almost  a  red  heart  sometimes. 

There  had  been  a  society  of  Tamanend — the  soldiers 
pronounced  it  ''Tammany" — of  loyal  common  soldiers 
and  their  minor  chieftains.  But  of  late  the  rebel  Ameri- 
mans  were  talking  of  the  ancient  hero  and  holy  one  as 
their  ''patron  saint"  and  the  "patron  saint'''  of  the 
13-Fires,  smiling  grimly  while  they  said  it. 

Societies  of  St.  Tammany  met  stealthily  lest  the 
Redcoats  know  their  plans. 

To  Koguethagechton,  his  white  hunting  companions 
explained  this  cunning  trickery  worthy  of  Nanaboush 
himself — Nanaboush  the  sly  one,  who  was  the  first 
friend  of  the  first  men  and  fought  for  them  against  the 
evil  manitos  of  nature. 

There  were  societies  of  Redcoat  officers  and  nobles 
named  for  Saints  who  lived  across  the  great  waters. 
Saint  Andrew  for  the  Scotch;  St.  David  for  the  Welsh; 
Saint  George  for  the  English — all  British  saints.  Ameri- 
cans they  said,  would  have  none  but  an  American  saint 
for  their  powows !  And  who  was  greater  and  more 
American  than  the  holy  Tamanend? 

Here  Koguethagechton  must  have  grinned  as  broadly 
as  any  of  the  Yanokies  (see  Appendix  Note  2),  as  the 
Iroquois  termed  the  New  England  palefaces.  He  had 
often  wondered  himself  at  the  pompous  mein  of  some  of 
those  Redcoat  officials  who  seemed  not  to  understand 
this  land  nor  any  of  its  people,  red  or  white. 

Sometimes  they  treated  their  Red  allies  as  though 
they  were  slaves  instead  of  free  men  in  a  free  land.    As 


for  the  white  children  of  the  Great  Father  in  England, 
his  representatives  here  did  certainly  appear  to  regard 
them  with  scornful  or  amused  tolerance  as  inferior 

Yes,  the  joke  of  the  Yanokies  was  good. 

The  manito  of  the  Yanokies  would  be  strong  because 
of  it. 

For  they  understood  more  than  the  joke  they  played. 
They  understood  that  the  Great  Spirit  made  this  land 
for  his  children  to  hunt  and  fish  over  and  grow  corn  and 
other  food  in,  wherever  it  pleased  them.  Had  not  he, 
the  Grand  Sachem's  chief  counsellor  himself,  very  often 
smoked  over  such  matters  with  his  white  brothers? 

They  who  had  red  hearts  that  could  understand, 
knew  that  no  man  could  really  sell  or  own  a  foot  of 
ground  he  no  longer  used,  for  it  all  belonged  to  the 
Great  Spirit  who  made  it.  All  were  free  to  go  and  come 
where  they  pleased  and  to  use  any  part  of  it  they  wished 
so  long  as  they  did  not  interfere  with  the  rights  of 
others  occupying  it  at  the  time.  The  land  was  free  as 
the  air  or  the  water. 

Nations  did  not  "own"  land  even  when  they  exercised 
their  rights  over  a  part  of  it.  National  boundaries  were 
determined  by  the  extent  to  which  peace  prevailed 
through  mutual  treaties  between  tribes  and  nations  at 
any  certain  time. 

Long  might  Koguethagechton  have  reflected  upon 
this  weighty  matter  of  threatened  war  between  his 
friends  and  their  King,  before  deciding  what  counsel  he 
should  offer  Netawatwes  the  King  had  not  the  Congress 
of  the  Colonies  at  Philadelphia  requested  his  advice. 

What  the  American  Congress  desired  most  was  that 
the  Indians  be  kept  neutral  in  their  struggle  with  King 
George.    They  did  not  ask  violation  of  the  treaty  and 


alliance  between  the  Red  and  White  nations — only 

Could  that  be  effected? 

Koguethagechton  would  see.     He  went  west. 

Congress  sent  to  interview  him  a  second  time  Colonel 
George  Morgan  of  Princeton,  New  Jersey. 

Colonel  Morgan  sought  the  Red  sage  at  his  western 
seat  on  the  Muskingum  river  in  Ohio,  where  many  of 
the  Delaware  had  moved  in  1760. 

Now  the  Kings  counsellor  had  himself  become  King. 
Netawatwes  was  dead.  The  wisest  and  best  of  the 
Delaware  had  been  chosen  to  succeed  him  and  this  all 
agreed  was  he  whom  the  white  men  knew  as  White 

Colonel  Morgan  was  one  of  those  Americans  with  a 
Red  Heart  and  his  mission  to  the  new  King  won  for 
him  the  highest  honor  the  Delawares  could  bestow. 

Koguethagechton  called  him  "Tamanend,"  a  name 
he  bore  thereafter  among  both  Americans  and  Indians. 

As  for  the  Grand  Sachem,  he  was  given  the  rank  of 
Captain  in  the  Colonial  Army. 

Our  histories  only  record  "Captain  White  Eyes"  as 
first  Delaware  Captain  and  "Head  Chief  of  the  Turtle 
Tribe  in  Ohio."  But  as  we  shall  see  elsewhere  in  this 
story,  the  Turtle  Tribe  provided  the  Grand  Sachems 
for  one  of  the  most  powerful  Indian  Leagues  in  North 

Between  "Captain  White  Eyes"  and  the  messenger 
from  Congress,  was  a  tie  of  Tamanend  to  which  both 
were  faithful.  At  the  risk  of  his  life  and  position  as 
chief,  the  Grand  Sachem  strove  throughout  the  Revolu- 
tion to  keep  his  people  neutral,  and  to  protect  those 
Delaware  Indians  who  had  been  converted  to  Christi- 
anity by  the  Moravians. 


The  war  called  all  Algonkins  to  espouse  the  cause  of 
their  British  ally  and  this  split  the  Delaware  nation 
between  loyalty  to  their  Grand  Sachem  and  their  obliga- 
tions under  what  they  supposed  was  a  treaty  between 
their  nation  and  the  English  nation.  The  British  were 
everywhere  calling  upon  the  Indians  to  fight  for  them 
as  allies.  Only  White  Eyes  saw  clearly  that  the  British 
regarded  all  Indians  as  "subjects." 

His  chief  opponent,  representing  the  British  interests, 
was  "Captain  Pipe"  sachem  of  the  Wolf  tribe,  over 
whom  he  had  many  triumphs  and  who  was  himself  a 
brave  man. 

The  Grand  Sachem  died  of  smallpox  on  a  visit  to 
Pittsburg  in  the  winter  of  1779-80  and  among  the  dele- 
gations of  condolence  at  his  funeral  was  one  from  the 
Cherokee  nation,  ancient  enemies  of  the  Algonkins. 

He  left  a  son,  George  White-Eyes  and  in  1785  Con- 
gress passed  the  following  resolution  with  regard  to 
him  and  in  memory  of  his  father  (see  Appendix  Note 

"That  Mr.  Morgan  be  empowered  and  requested 
to  continue  the  care  and  direction  of  George  White- 
Eyes  for  one  year,  and  the  Board  of  Treasury  take 
order  for  the  payment  of  the  expenses  necessary  to 
carry  into  execution  the  views  of  Congress  in  this 

So  the  White  Tamanend  befriended  his  dead  friend's 
son  and  the  American  Congress  recognized  an  obliga- 
tion, because  of  an  ideal  shared  in  common  between 
them,  which  was  native  to  the  soil. 

That  these  events  were  not  mere  interludes  in  a 
scramble  between  British  and  Americans  for  the  service 


of  the  "savages,"  but  went  more  deeply  into  those 
spiritual  values  that  brought  the  Tamanend  ideal  into 
future  American  policies,  is  attested  by  the  fact  that 
even  before  the  Revolution,  Koguethagechton  was 
highly  respected  by  the  Colonials. 

He  was  then  a  War  Chief  of  the  Delawares  and 
friendly  toward  the  whites.  The  English,  having  won 
the  French-Indian  War,  sent  to  induce  the  Delawares 
to  renounce  their  "French  allegiance."  This  was  the 
answer  to  which  he  subscribed : 

"Brethren,  when  you  have  settled  this  peace  and 
friendship  and  finished  it  well,  and  you  send  the  great 
peace  belt  to  me,  I  will  send  it  to  all  the  nations  of  my 
color;  they  will  all  join  to  it  and  we  will  hold  it  fast. 

"Brethren,  when  All  the  nations  join  to  this  friend- 
ship, then  the  day  will  shine  clear  over  us.  When  we 
hear  once  more  of  you,  and  we  join  together,  then  the 
day  will  be  still,  and  no  wind  or  storm  will  come  over 
to  disturb  us. 

"Now,  Brethren,  you  know  our  hearts  and  what  we 
have  to  say;  be  strong,  if  you  do  what  we  have  now  told 
you  and  in  this  peace  all  nations  agree  to  join.  Now 
Brethren,  let  the  King  of  England  know  what  our  mind 
is  as  soon  as  you  possibly  can." 

He  was  not  himself  a  Christian  but  vigorously  op- 
posed the  decision  of  his  predecessor  the  Grand  Sachem 
himself,  to  expell  them  from  the  Delaware  country  in 
Ohio,  holding  himself  ready  to  renounce  his  own 
country,  power  and  kindred  rather  than  see  injustice 
done.  And  his  firmness  won  the  Grand  Sachem 
Netawatwes  to  acknowledge  the  justice  of  his  attitude 
and  to  accept  him  as  counsellor  even  before  the  Revolu- 
tionary war. 



And  when  Netawatwes  died  at  Pittsburg  in  1776 
Koguethagechton  succeeded  him.  When  the  latter  died, 
it  was  with  the  expressed  desire  that  his  people  be 
allowed  to  learn  the  white  man's  civilization. 


Founder  of  Philadelphia  and  friend  of  the  third  and  last 
Tamanend.  The  two  understood  each  other  because  their 
religions  were  so  much  alike. 


Tamanend  III  and  William  Penn 

William  Penn  and  his  Holy  Experiment  came  into 
direct  contact  with  the  Tamanend  ideal  in  the  person  of 
the  third  Tamanend,  Grand  Sachem  and  chief  of  the 
Turtle  tribe  of  the  Delawares,  who  lived  near  where 
the  city  of  Philadelphia  now  stands. 

He  was  perhaps  the  only  European  who  thoroughly 
understood  the  aboriginal  ideals  of  freedom,  peace  and 
religion !  For  they  were  so  closely  akin  to  those  of  the 
great  Quaker  himself,  that  he  was  accepted  as  a  friend 
and  equal  by  Tamanend,  who  called  Kim  "My  Elder 

During  his  short  stay  in  America,  Governor  Penn 
was  introduced  to  Indian  ways  of  life,  some  of  which 
shocked  him  beyond  doubt,  but  never  once  did  he  give 
offence,  even  when  accepting  the  hospitality  of  the 
Grand  Sachem's  home  where  aboriginal  law  decreed 
that  entertainment  and  refreshment  include  an  offer  of 
female  companionship  by  some  member  of  the  family! 

It  must  have  seemed  to  Tamanend,  if  not  to  Penn 
himself,  that  the  course  of  their  lives  had  been  directed 
by  the  Great  Spirit  toward  their  meeting  in  America,  so 
precisely  did  the  Quaker  ideal  fit  into  the  Tamanend 

Not  only  by  personal  visits  to  each  other's  homes, 
where  there  must  have  been  long  conferences,  but  by 
long  excursions  together  over  the  lands  Penn  was  to 



"purchase"  from  the  Indians,  did  these  two  build  up  a 
lasting  friendship  that  became  a  legend  all  over  the 
land  east  of  the  Mississippi  River  at  least. 

No  Quaker  blood  was  thereafter  shed  in  Pennsyl- 
vania by  any  Indian. 

The  "children  of  Onas"  (Onas  the  Delaware  word 
for  feather  or  pen,  as  miquon  (see  Appendix  Note  1), 
another  name,  was  the  Ojibwa  word)  were  regarded  by 
the  Delawares  and  Algonkins  generally,  as  sacred 

Where  Penn  and  Tamanend  Met 

"Quakerism  was  a  system  of  polity,  as  well  as  a 
religion.  It  taught  the  equality  of  men  in  their 
political  relations — their  common  right  to  liberty 
of  thought  and  action — to  express  opinions — to 
worship  God — to  concur  in  the  enactment  of 
general  laws;  but  it  found  the  sanctions  of  this 
equality,  not  in  the  usages  of  ancient  nations,  like 
the  classic  republicans — not  in  a  mere  convenient 
arrangement  of  checks  and  counterchecks  of  power 
— like  more  modern  reformers;  it  found  these 
sanctions  lying  far  deeper,  in  the  very  nature  of 
man,  in  that  supremacy  which  it  assigned  to  the 
divine  light  in  each  individual." 

—  {Life  of  Wm.  Penn, 
by  Wm.  Hepworth  Dixon.   Page  57.) 

In  simpler  language,  the  American  aboriginal  could 
accept  this  statement  as  descriptive  of  his  own  religion! 

It  was  the  height  of  every  young  warrior's  ambition 
to  some  day  be  admitted  to  the  Priests  House,  called 
among  the  Delawares  and  other  Algonkins,  the 


Admission  meant  communion  between  the  individual 
and  the  Great  Spirit  who  made  everything.  That 
"divine  light  in  each  individual"  as  the  Quakers  ex- 
pressed it,  was  the  Manito  of  the  Algonkin,  the  Orenda 
of  the  Iroquois,  the  Wakonda  of  the  Sioux.  This 
"spirit  power"  possessed  by  every  individual  Indian  in 
America,  by  whatever  name  he  called  it,  led  him  to 
regard  first  the  "spirit"  or  Manito  of  any  friend  or  foe 
with  whom  he  dealt. 

In  other  words,  of  more  modern  use,  he  was  a  past 
master  at  recognizing  character  and  reading  it.  The 
mental  and  spiritual  values  decided  his  course  of  action 
to  a  much  larger  extent  than  things  and  events  physical. 

And  so,  a  Tamanend  could  see  in  William  Penn  a 
kindred  soul,  himself  worthy  of  the  name. 

It  would  be  interesting  but  out  of  place  here,  to  com- 
pare the  life  of  Penn,  step  by  step  from  the  time  he 
became  a  Quaker,  with  the  Tamanend  ideal  already 
developed  in  America  through  untold  centuries  of 
aboriginal  evolution.  By  1662  Penn  had  perfected  the 
outlines  of  his  Holy  Experiment — nothing  less  than  to 
establish  in  the  New  World,  a  great  colony  for  all 
peoples,  where  no  man  could  be  persecuted  for  his 
religious,  political  or  any  other  beliefs,  but  earn  his 
living  in  perfect  freedom  of  thought  and  action.  Both 
freedom  of  person  and  of  trade  were  to  be  safeguarded. 

His  surveyor  and  chief  lieutenant  were  already  some 
months  in  the  new  land  and  had  acquainted  the  Indians 
with  the  designs  of  their  employer,  when  Penn  landed 
October  27,  1682  at  Newcastle  to  be  received  by  the 
polyglot  inhabitants  in  holiday  spirit. 

He  "Came  as  a  Friend" — as  the  Indians  themselves 
would  have  expressed  it  in  their  records — rather  than 
as  Governor  of  a  territory  lately  ceded  by  the  Duke  of 


York  who  had  it  as  a  gift  from  his  brother  the  English 
King,  who  had  no  other  right  to  it  of  course  than  the 
claim  of  victory  over  the  Dutch  who  were  the  first  to 
claim  it.  Tamanend,  the  Grand  Sachem,  could  with 
equal  right  claim  it  as  the  land  of  his  own  people  because 
they  occupied  it  centuries  before  the  whites  arrived. 

However,  Penn  was  not  concerned  with  the  legal 
aspects  of  ownership  in  the  land  any  more  than 
Tamanend.  He  expected  to  conciliate  all  people, 
recognize  and  extinguish  all  claims  that  the  Holy 
Experiment  might  not  fail.  To  this  end  he  was  pre- 
pared to  devote  his  entire  fortune  and  his  life.  He  had 
no  means  of  knowing  whether  his  policy  with  the 
savages  would  be  successful. 

A  Frenchman,  Duponceau,  is  said  to  have  suggested 
the  following  scene  for  an  historical  picture.  The  biog- 
rapher of  Penn  accepts  it  as  far  truer  to  the  facts  than 
other  artistic  fancies. 

"In  the  center  of  the  foreground,  only  distinguished 
from  the  few  companions  of  his  voyage,  who  have  yet 
landed,  by  the  nobleness  of  his  mein,  and  a  light  blue 
silken  sash  tied  around  his  waist,  stands  William  Penn; 
erect  in  stature,  every  motion  indicating  grace,  his 
countenance  lighted  up  with  hope  and  honest  pride — in 
every  limb  and  feature  the  expression  of  a  serene  and 
manly  beauty.     (He  was  only  38  at  the  time.) 

"The  young  officer  before  him,  dressed  in  the  gay 
costume  of  the  English  service,  is  his  lieutenant,  Mark- 
ham,  come  to  welcome  his  relative  to  the  new  land,  and 
to  give  an  account  of  his  own  stewardship.  On  the 
right,  stand  the  chief  settlers  of  the  district,  arrayed  in 
their  national  costumes,  the  light  hair  and  quick  eye  of 
the  Swede  finding  a  good  foil  in  the  stolid  look  of  the 
heavy  Dutchman,  who  doffs  his  cap,  but  doubts  whether 


he  shall  take  the  pipe  out  of  his  mouth,  even  to  say 
welcome  to  the  new  governor. 

"A  little  apart,  as  if  studying  with  the  intense  eager- 
ness of  Indian  skill  the  physiognomy  of  the  ruler  who 
has  come  with  his  children  to  occupy  their  hunting 
grounds,  stands  the  wise  and  noble  leader  of  the  Red 
Men,  Tamanend,  and  a  party  of  the  Lenni  Lenape  in 
their  picturesque  paints  and  costume." 

The  Grand  Sachem  had  speedy  opportunity  to 
appraise  this  new  white  governor,  for  the  very  next 
day,  in  taking  formal  possession  of  his  little  kingdom, 
Penn  explained  his  ideals  to  the  people  to  their  great 
astonishment  and  joy. 

There  was  to  be  a  free  and  virtuous  state,  in  which 
people  should  rule  themselves;  he  was  granted  extra- 
ordinary powers,  but  did  not  expect  to  use  them  save  for 
the  general  good  and  then  only  provisionally.  Every 
man  should  enjoy  liberty  of  conscience  and  his  fair 
share  of  political  power.  As  proof  of  his  intentions  he 
renewed  in  his  own  name  the  commissions  of  all  existing 

Chester  was  chosen  for  the  first  General  Assembly 
meeting,  which  had  already,  under  his  orders  been 
elected  by  universal  suffrage. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  this  body  was  to  unite  the 
upper  and  lower  provinces  along  the  Delaware  river. 
The  views  of  Penn  were  adopted  and  made  law  as  fast 
as  they  could  be  read  and  acted  upon.  The  whole 
catalogue  of  legal  crimes  according  to  English  law  were 
blotted  out  with  the  exception  of  murder  and  treason. 
In  three  days,  this  legislative  body  of  farmers  com- 
pleted their  work  and  went  back  to  their  plows. 

Civil  and  religious  liberty  were  at  last  assured.  This 
was  the  ideal  land  of  tolerance  of  which  many  had 


dreamed  but  none  as  yet  had  practiced.  Governor 
Bradford,  one  of  the  noblest  of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers 
denounced  toleration  as  tending  to  misrule  and  con- 
fusion !  Those  who  had  been  coming  to  America  for 
conscience  sake,  often  demanded  death  for  those  who 
would  not  change  their  views  to  conform  to  their  own. 

The  Inquisition  and  Star  Chamber  horrors  of  Europe 
were  no  worse  than  the  practices  of  various  groups  seek- 
ing asylum  in  the  New  World  because  of  intolerance  at 
home !  What  each  really  desired,  was  to  be  free  to 
practice  their  own  religion — and  force  it  on  others  who 
insisted  on  living  with  them.  Penn  proposed  a  freedom 
of  thought  scarcely  dreamed  of  in  his  day — and  it 
accorded  with  the  Tamanend  ideal  only,  of  all  the  ideals 
in  America. 

At  a  place  called  by  the  Indians,  Wecacoae,  three 
Swedes  were  "owners"  or  occupiers  of  the  land  and 
Penn  purchased  it  from  them  on  their  own  terms.  And 
here  he  founded  his  "City  of  Brotherly  Love,"  Phila- 
delphia, the  plans  and  even  name  for  which  were  all  in 

Twenty-three  shiploads  of  emmigrants  followed 
Penn  and  before  the  great  city  was  even  begun  many 
were  living  in  caves  waiting  the  new  freedom  that  they 
had  come  so  far  to  enjoy. 

Within  a  year  from  Penn's  landing,  a  hundred  houses, 
many  of  stone,  had  been  built,  the  whole  future  of  the 
city  planned,  more  than  300  farms  settled,  sixty  vessels 
of  light  and  heavy  tonnage  had  sailed  into  the  Delaware 
River  and  Penn  remarked  to  Lord  Halifax,  that  "I 
must  without  vanity  say :  'I  have  led  the  greatest  colony 
into  America  that  ever  any  man  did  on  private  credit.'  " 

He  was  building  schools,  bringing  over  printing 
presses  and  declared  that  he  expected  to  do  in  seven 


years  what  his  neighboring  colonies  had  taken  forty  to 
achieve.  He  even  put  into  operation  the  postal  service, 
and  presided  at  a  trial  for  witchcraft  where  his  decision 
was  such  as  to  discourage  any  more  superstitious  ex- 
hibitions of  this  sort,  common  enough  to  other  colonies 
and  so  often  spelling  death  to  the  accused  in  New 

Penn  merely  bound  her  over  to  keep  the  peace  ! 

The  jury  found  her  guilty  of  having  the  reputation 
of  witch  but  not  guilty  to  manner  and  form  as  indicted ! 

In  two  years  the  number  of  houses  in  Philadelphia 
had  doubled. 

All  men  seemed  to  love  this  most  affable  of  men  who 
performed  prodigies  of  labor  for  human  beings  through 
the  force  of  a  compelling  personality. 

The  watchful  eyes  of  the  Grand  Sachem  Tamanend 
must  have  beamed  with  pleasure  each  time  he  watched 
the  results  flowing  so  easily  from  the  Governor's  efforts. 

His  intercourse  with  the  Indians  was  always  cordial 
and  is  thus  described  by  his  biographer. 

"Putting  away  the  formal  stiffness  of  English 
manners,  he  won  their  simple  hearts  by  his  confidence 
and  easy  bearing.  He  walked  with  them  alone  into  the 
forests.  He  sat  with  them  on  the  ground  to  watch  the 
young  men  dance  and  perform  their  exercises. 

"He  joined  with  them  in  their  feasts  and  ate  of  their 
roasted  acorns  and  hominy.  When  they  expressed  their 
rapturous  delight  at  seeing  the  great  Onas  imitate  their 
national  customs,  not  to  be  outdone  in  any  of  those 
feats  of  personal  prowess  which  the  Red  Men  value  so 
highly,  he  rose  from  his  seat,  entered  the  list  with  the 
leapers  and  beat  them  all;  at  seeing  which  the  younger 
warriors  could  hardly  control  their  admiration!" 

As  pointed  out,  Penn  "bought"  the  site  of  Phila- 


delphia  from  the  Swedish  occupants  of  the  land  at  their 
own  valuation. 

He  also  "purchased"  it  from  the  aboriginal  occu- 
pants— the  Delawares. 

To  celebrate  this  he  and  Tamanend  met  with  their 
followers  under  a  Great  Elm  at  the  place  of  kings, 
Saki-maxon  (corrupted  now  into  Shackamaxon)  where 
royal  treaties  had  been  made  by  kings  before  Columbus 
discovered  America  (see  Appendix  Note  4) .  Here  the 
calumet  had  been  smoked  and  national  differences  ar- 
ranged for  at  least  150  years  under  this  great  Peace 
Tree  of  the  Delawares,  and  no  one  knows  when  it  was 

Tamanend  placed  on  his  own  head  the  symbol  of 
his  power — a  chaplet  into  which  a  small  horn  was 
twisted — which  immediately  made  the  spot  a  sacred 
one  and  the  life  of  every  person  present  inviolable.  He 
then  seated  himself  in  the  center  of  his  sachems  with 
the  older  ones  at  his  right  and  left.  The  middle  aged 
warriors  were  in  a  semi-circle  at  his  back  and  behind 
them  the  younger  men  stood. 

All  those  sachems  had  agreed  to  transfer  their  rights 
in  the  land  to  Onas  and  Tamanend  himself  had  signed 
with  them.  This  meeting  was  to  seal  the  treaty.  Penn 
spoke  to  them  in  their  own  tongue ! 

The  Great  Spirit  was  their  common  Father  and 
knew  every  secret  thought  of  White  Man  or  Red.  He 
knew  that  it  was  the  desire  of  Penn  and  his  children  to 
live  in  peace,  be  friends  with  their  Red  brothers  and  to 
do  no  wrong.  The  Great  Spirit  wished  them  all  to  live 
together  as  brothers,  as  children  of  a  common  parent, 
as  if  they  had  one  head,  one  heart,  one  body.  If  ill  was 
done  to  one,  all  would  suffer.  If  good,  all  would  gain. 
(See  Appendix  Note  5). 


The  children  of  Onas  never  used  the  rifle  or  trusted 
to  the  sword;  they  met  their  Red  brothers  on  the  broad 
path  of  good  faith  and  good  will.  The  intended  to  do 
no  harm.  They  had  no  fear  in  their  hearts.  They  be- 
lieved their  brothers  were  just. 

Penn  then  explained  the  clauses  of  the  treaty  one  by 

The  Children  of  Onas  and  the  Lenni  Lenape  from 
that  day  were  brothers,  the  doors  of  each  open  to  the 
other  and  all  their  paths  free  and  open.  Neither  should 
believe  false  reports  of  the  other  but  should  come  and 
see  for  themselves  as  brothers  to  brothers,  so  that  such 
reports  should  be  buried  in  a  bottomless  pit.  They 
should  assist  each  other  against  all  who  would  disturb 
them  or  do  them  hurt. 

They  should  tell  their  children  of  this  chain  of  friend- 
ship that  it  might  grow  stronger  and  be  kept  bright  and 
clean  as  long  as  the  waters  ran  down  the  creeks  and 
rivers  and  the  sun,  moon  and  stars  should  endure. 

There  were  no  oaths  nor  official  red  tape  about  this 
treaty  which  was  ratified  on  both  sides  by  simple  agree- 

Voltaire  declared  it  the  only  one  the  world  has  ever 
known  that  was  "never  sworn  to  and  never  broken." 

William  Penn  told  Tamanend  that,  although  his 
King  had  granted  him  the  whole  country,  from  the  Cape 
of  Henlopen  to  regions  stretching  beyond  the  great 
mountains  to  the  Northern  Lakes,  he  did  not  intend  to 
take  from  him  a  single  rood  of  their  ancient  hunting 
grounds,  but  to  buy  from  him  and  his  people,  with  their 
own  full  consent  and  good  will.  He  would  never  allow 
his  children  to  wrong  the  Indians,  cheat  them  of  their 
fish,  their  wild  game,  their  beaver  skins  by  lies  in  the 
market  place. 


The  children  of  Onas  would  never  refuse  to  pay  a 
fair  price  for  every  article  purchased.  When  a  quarrel 
arose  between  white  and  red  men,  six  Indians  and  six 
English  should  judge  of  the  matter. 

Penn's  representative  exchanged  presents  with  the 
sachems  and  received  a  wampum  belt  with  the  assur- 

"We  will  live  in  peace  with  Onas  and  his  children  as 
long  as  the  sun  shall  endure." 

When  Penn  said  to  them  they  were  to  consider  the 
land  common  to  the  two  races  and  that  the  Indians  were 
to  use  freely  its  resources  whenever  they  might  have 
occasion  for  them,  he  proved  to  Tamanend  that  he  both 
understood  and  respected  the  law  of  the  Great  Spirit 
who  was  the  sole  owner  of  the  land  itself,  so  that  all 
transfers  of  rights  and  sites  were  subject  to  this  very 
provision — that  food,  clothing  and  shelter,  as  resources 
of  the  land,  were  free  to  all,  gifts  of  the  Great  Spirit. 

The  Great  Elm  Peace  Tree  stood  until  1810  when  a 
storm  blew  it  down.  Part  of  it  was  sent  to  the  Penn 
family  in  England  and  relic  hunters  got  the  rest.  A  slip 
from  the  old  tree  was  replanted  so  the  Great  Treaty 
should  not  be  forgotten. 

Had  this  Great  Treaty  been  kept  as  religiously  by 
the  whites  as  by  the  people  of  Tamanend,  much  of  their 
relations  with  the  natives  would  have  been  different  in 
the  years  to  come.  Five  years  after  Penn's  death  in 
England  (1718)  the  first  red  man  lost  his  life  in  a 
quarrel  with  a  white. 

And  the  Indians  prayed  that  his  life  might  be  spared 
— which  it  was !  When  the  murderer  died  shortly 
thereafter,  they  said  the  Great  Spirit  had  avenged  their 

When   Penn   found  it  wise   to   return  to  England, 


where  he  feared  the  tampering  of  others  with  his  colony, 
virtually  all  power  had  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  the 
people.     He  said — 

"I  purpose  to  leave  myself  and  successors  no  power 
of  doing  mischief,  that  the  will  of  one  man  may  not 
hinder  the  good  of  a  whole  country !" 

Again  he  called  together  the  sachems  of  the  Delaware 
under  their  Grand  Sachem,  Tamanend  and  concluded 
separate  treaties  of  peace  and  friendship  with  each  one. 
He  told  them  he  would  return  if  the  Great  Spirit  willed 
and  asked  them  to  drink  no  more  fire-water.  He  for- 
bade his  own  children  to  sell  it  to  them ! 

It  was  some  17  years  before  Penn  return  to  Phila- 
delphia where  the  recent  French-Indian  war  and  pirates 
had  created  chaos.  The  Quakers  were  not  in  such  good 
standing  with  their  neighbors  because  of  their  pacificist 
attitude.  Penn  changed  conditions  at  once.  He  had 
the  necessary  laws  passed,  settled  in  his  home  of  Penns- 
bury  near  Trenton.  This  place  had  been  the  residence 
of  the  ancient  Delaware  Kings  because  it  was  an  almost 
impregnable  natural  fortress. 

As  such,  it  will  be  recognized  by  students  as  the 
"Shore"  seat  of  the  Grand  Sachems  who  alternated  it 
with  their  seat  on  the  Susquehanna. 

This  circumstance  doubtless  increased  the  regard  in 
which  the  Indians  held  him,  if  that  were  possible.  As 
originally  intended  by  him  he  was  to  meet  in  council  with 
them  twice  a  year  to  renew  the  treaty  of  friendship  and 
he  continued  to  do  this  so  long  as  he  remained  in  the 

The  Delaware  and  Susquehanna  tribes  had  been 
enjoying  the  fruits  of  the  Great  Treaty  of  1682,  at 
which  Tamanend  was  present  in  person,  for  so  many 
years  that  on  the  return  of  Penn,  they  sought  to  include 


in  their  semi-annual  councils,  other  tribes  seeking  the 
shelter  of  the  Children  of  Onas. 

The  Susquehanna  tribes  here  alluded  to,  were  doubt- 
less Lenape  peoples  or  at  least  Algonkins  living  on  the 
Susquehanna  and  therefore  rightly  included  in  the 
councils  with  the  Lenape  on  the  Delaware,  for  the  new 
nations  now  introduced  to  Penn,  whom  he  met  in  April 
1701,  included  both  Algonkins  and  Iroquois.  Their 
leaders  were: 

1.  Connoodaghto,  Sakim  of  the  Susquehannas  or 
Susquehannocks,  otherwise  known  as  Conestogas,  an 
Iroquoian  people  overthrown  by  the  Iroquoian  League 
of  Five  Nations  in  New  York,  in  1675,  again  defeated 
by  the  Marylanders  the  following  year,  and  forced  to 
seek  adoption  by  the  Oniedas,  one  of  the  five  nations. 
They  had  been  the  terror  of  Algonkins  along  the 
Atlantic  Coast  in  the  time  of  Lord  Baltimore  and  long 
a  thorn  in  the  flesh  to  the  New  York  Iroquois. 

2.  Wopatha,  Sakim  of  the  Shawnees,  Algonkins 
whose  connection  with  the  Great  League  was  very 
ancient.  They  had  left  the  main  body  after  the  Talaga 
War  while  yet  in  the  Ohio  Valley,  settled  in  the  South, 
sometimes  fighting  and  sometimes  friendly  with  the 
Cherokee,  when  the  latter  were  at  loggerheads  with 
Siouan  Catawba.  Even  in  Florida  and  elsewhere  they 
came  in  contact,  generally  as  enemies,  with  the  Muskoki 
or  Creek  League  of  Indians.  They  were  widely 
scattered  from  North  to  South,  the  most  nomadic  of  all 
the  League  nations. 

Early  in  the  Seventeenth  Century,  those  in  Tennessee 
were  driven  out  by  the  Chickasaws  and  Cherokee  and 
helped  the  Iroquoian  Eries  and  Andastes  against  the 
Five  Nations  but  were  defeated  in  1672 — ten  years 
prior  to  Perm's  treaty  with  Tamanend.     Then  they 


settled  in  the  Siouan  Catawba  country  but  were  driven 
out  into  Muskoki  territory.  Also  some  of  them 
scattered  in  Ohio,  New  England  and  Pennsylvania. 

Their  great  stronghold  was  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Scioto  River  in  Ohio,  which  they  seem  to  have  held 
from  the  time  they  left  the  parent  stem,  despite  the 
recapture  of  the  Ohio  Valley  by  the  Iroquois.  But  so 
roving  a  nation,  always  a  puzzle  to  historians,  could  be 
really  "defeated"  and  made  "dependant  on  the 
Iroquois"  only  in  small  sections  at  any  one  time.  . 

The  presumption  of  Penn  at  this  time,  was  probably 
that  they  were  dependants  of  the  Iroquois. 

3.  Weewhinhough,  Sakim  of  the  Ganawese. 

4.  Ahookassong,  a  brother  and  ambassador  of  the 
King  or  head  chief  of  the  Iroquois  League  of  Five 

5.  The  Delawares  presumably  were  present  at  this 
conference  also  since  they  initiated  the  gathering, 
although  they  are  not  specifically  mentioned  as  being 

Our  historians  have  generally  agreed  with  the 
Iroquois,  that  at  this  time,  and  long  before,  the  Dela- 
wares were  "dependant  on  the  Iroquois"  because  of 
their  defeat  in  an  ancient  war  between  them,  at  which 
time  the  Delawares  were  driven  east  of  the  river  of 
that  name  and  lost  their  rights  to  the  west  side  to  the 
Iroquois.  The  latter  were  accustomed  very  often  to 
taunt  the  Delawares  with  their  humiliation  and  to  call 
them  "women"  who  would  not  fight. 

So  it  is  possible  that  Penn  may  have  taken  this  view 
of  the  matter  also  when  receiving  the  above  mentioned 
tribes  at  the  intercession  of  the  Delawares  themselves, 
doubtless  at  the  instance  of  Tamanend. 

However  I  do  not  think  it  probable,  for  Penn  had 


known  Tamanend  too  intimately  and  it  was  at  a  council 
at  Philadelphia  July  6,  1694  (prior  to  Penn's  return) 
that  Tamanend  himself  had  refused  the  Iroquois  re- 
quest that  the  Delawares  join  them  in  an  attack  on  the 
English.    The  Grand  Sachem  did  so  in  these  words : 

"We  and  the  Christians  of  this  river  have  always  had 
a  free  roadway  to  one  another  and  though  sometimes  a 
tree  has  fallen  across  the  road  yet  we  have  still  removed 
it  again  and  kept  the  path  clear  and  we  design  to  con- 
tinue the  old  friendship  that  has  come  between  us  and 

These  were  not  the  words  of  Iroquois  dependants  nor 
did  the  Iroquois  reply  by  a  declaration  of  war.  The 
Delawares  considered  themselves  still  the  equals  of  the 
Iroquois  regardless  of  what  the  Iroquois  considered! 

They  were  governed  by  King  Tamanend,  a  sufficient 
indication  to  any  Lenape  historian  that  there  was  peace 
between  them  and  all  nations. 

Therefore  the  probable  explanation  of  this  extra- 
ordinary meeting  between  Algonkins,  Iroquois  and 
Penn,  with  an  ambassador  from  the  Five  Nations 
present,  was  precisely  what  it  appeared  to  be  on  the  face 
of  it — an  effort  by  Tamanend  to  conciliate  whites  and 
natives  between  whom  he  foresaw  future  trouble,  unless 
inviolable  treaties  of  peace  could  be  effected. 

Most  certainly  he  would  have  wanted  to  protect  his 
Elder  Brother  from  harm  by  including  both  Iroquois 
and  other  Algonkins  in  the  provisions  of  the  Great 
Treaty  of  1682. 

And  this  was  accomplished  at  the  council  of  1701. 
Penn  firmly  believed  that  in  making  a  treaty  with  the 
Five  Nations  he  had  rendered  a  great  service  to  all 
the  colonies. 

The  Delawares  pledged  themselves   for  the  good 


behavior  of  the  Susquehannas  and  Potomacs.  War  was 
still  raging  on  the  frontiers.  The  treaties  probably  did 
more  to  protect  the  Quakers  than  any  other  whites. 

They  were  among  the  last  acts  of  Penn,  who  left  for 
England  later  in  the  same  year,  never  to  return.  The 
Indians  came  from  every  part  of  the  country  to  bid  him 
farewell.  He  gave  them  gifts,  introduced  them  to  the 
Council  and  exacted  pledges  from  it  to  carry  out  his 
wishes  as  though  he  still  remained  at  Pennsbury. 

Tamanend  continued  King  of  the  Lenape  until  1718. 
He  probably  resigned  his  office  or  automatically  ceased 
to  function  as  peace  king  because  his  people  became 
involved  in  war.  His  intended  successor  Weheequickhon 
"alias  Andrew"  whom  he  mentioned  himself  in  1697, 
seems  not  to  have  had  that  distinction,  for  Allumpees 
or  Sassoonan  was  elected. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  Sassoonan  owed  his  elec- 
tion to  Iroquois  politics  within  the  Lenape  nation  and 
this  may  have  been  so.  Certainly  the  Iroquois  would 
never  have  forgiven  Tamanend  for  refusing  to  join 
them  against  the  whites,  although  precisely  the  same 
thing  happened  under  the  new  Grand  Sachem  in  1726 
when  the  Iroquois  wanted  to  fight  the  British. 

Tamanend  is  supposed  to  have  died  about  1750  a 
very  old  man.  Many  legends  tell  of  different  places 
where  he  lived  and  there  is  or  was  a  grave  in  Bucks 
County,  Pennsylvania,  supposed  to  have  been  Taman- 
end's,  though  it  seems  to  have  been  pretty  conclusively 
proven  that  the  legends  of  his  death  in  connection  with 
the  grave  arose  from  a  confusion  of  personalities.  (See 
Appendix  Note  6). 

That  he  upheld  the  real  policies  and  fame  of  the 
other  two  Tamanends,  there  can  be  no  doubt. 

It  was  upon  his  fame  however,  and  the  later  legends 


that  clustered  around  it,  that  the  so  called  Tammany 
Societies  after  the  Revolution  were  based.  The  pre- 
Revolutionary  and  Revolutionary  "Saint  Tammany" 
organizations  were  somewhat  different  affairs  more 
closely  allied  to  the  true  Tamanend  ideals. 

The  New  York  effort  to  nationalize  a  reorganization 
of  these  patriotic  societies  of  the  Revolution,  while 
worthy  and  engaging  the  interest  of  many  veterans  at 
its  inception,  had  the  curious  misfortune  to  make  it  a 
mixture  of  Iroquois  and  Algonkin  customs,  mostly 
Iroquois.  The  "Wigwam"  (an  Algonkin  word)  was 
patterned  after  the  Iroquois  "Long  House." 

The  mixture  was  similar  to  those  concocted  by  James 
Fenimore  Cooper  in  his  glorification  of  the  noble  red 
men  and  by  Longfellow  in  his  beautiful  poem  Hiawatha, 
where  an  Iroquois  Chief  becomes  an  Algonkin  hero  and 
marries  a  Siouan  princess! 

The  Tamanend  ideal  presumed  to  be  included  in  the 
ritual  and  ceremonies,  was  the  garbled  version  of  a 
generation  that  had  never  known  Tamanend.  The 
marvel  is  that  it  retained  so  much  of  the  original  as  it 

With  the  advent  of  European  civilization,  fire-water 
and  guns,  the  ideals  of  the  Stone  Age  Tamanends  could 
be  kept  alive  in  Red  breasts  only  through  the  powerful 
personality  of  another  Tamanend.  William  Penn's 
friend  was  that  man. 

Yet  this  third  Tamanend  was  but  the  titular  King 
of  the  once  powerful  Lenape  League,  which  had  slowly 
melted  before  the  superior  numbers  and  magic  of  the 
white  men,  intent  upon  their  own  establishment  and 
utterly  unmindful  of  aboriginal  conception  of  human 
rights  to  the  gifts  of  the  Great  Spirit. 

Dealing  with  an  admittedly  superior  people,  whose 


laws  and  customs  were  as  much  a  mystery  to  the  Indian 
as  theirs  were  to  the  Whites,  this  Tamanend  had  only 
the  shadow  of  that  power  once  possessed  by  his  an- 
cestors to  support  him. 

He  was  supreme  among  the  Delaware  tribes  alone,  to 
begin  with.  Long  ago,  as  we  shall  see,  these  tribes  had 
insisted  on  setting  up  a  separate  division  of  the  League 
their  King  was  presumed  to  control.  The  authority  of 
the  Grand  Sachem  had  become  almost  a  legend,  else- 
where than  in  Pennsylvania  and  Maryland. 

Yet  this  Third  Tamanend  had  so  effectively  blended 
the  ancient  Tamanend  ideals  with  those  of  European 
origin  that  when  distinctly  American  ideals  resulted 
from  the  blend,  they  had  powerful  influence  on  the 
whole  life  of  the  new  nation  from  its  birth  to  the  present 

In  these  first  two  chapters,  we  have  endeavored  to 
show  to  what  extent  this  was  done. 

Let  us  now  turn  to  the  original  Tamanend,  first  of 
the  name,  and  show  from  purely  native  sources,  just 
what  the  original  ideals  were,  so  that  we  may  see  how 
truly  they  were  preserved  through  the  course  of 


Before  Tamanend 

Kitchemanito  the  Great  Spirit  made  all  things  in- 
cluding lesser  spirits  or  manitos  and  "manbeings" 
which  became  the  ancestors  of  both  humans  and 

Everything  had  a  manito  for  its  protection  and  there 
were  good  spirits  and  bad  spirits.  The  good  spirits, 
who  were  also  creators  of  things  themselves,  were  under 
the  guidance  of  Dzhemanito  the  Good  Spirit,  while 
those  which  were  evil  and  therefore  opposed  to  those 
which  were  good,  were  under  the  authority  of 
Makimani,  the  Bad  Spirit. 

Aboriginal  American  theology  did  not  quibble  over 
the  obvious  truth  that  both  were  the  creations  of  the 
Kitchemanito  because  the  "Great  Spirit"  was  not  a 
"God,"  in  the  sense  that  our  more  enlightened  modern 
theologians  might  understand  him.  Kitchemanito 
simply  Was — and  caused  all  else  to  be. 

His  creations  were  to  become  good  or  bad  according 
as  they  opposed  each  other  with  the  welfare  of  human 
beings  in  mind.  What  was  good  for  the  Red  Man  had 
good  manito.  What  was  bad  for  him  had  bad  manito 
— and  that  was  all  there  was  to  it. 

Makimani  was  a  Bad  Spirit  because  he  made  bad 
things  such  as  monsters  and  gnats  and  flies.  Winter 
therefore  was  full  of  bad  manito.  The  weather  came 
alternately  under  the  influence  of  good  and  evil  manito. 



An  enemy  was  naturally  filled  with  bad  manito  although 
it  might  be  very  powerful  manito.  If  he  were  a  very 
brave  warrior,  and  especially  if  you  had  the  good  for- 
tune to  slay  him,  he  might  even  be  credited  with  the 
possession  of  powerful  good  manito,  which  thereupon 
might  transfer  to  his  slayer. 

Dzhemanito  was  the  special  guardian  of  the 
Midewiwan,  the  house  of  priests  into  which  all  warriors 
were  ambitious  to  be  initiated.  For  in  this  house  of 
mysteries,  the  foremost  men  of  every  nation  were  taught 
the  laws  of  the  Great  Spirit. 

These  laws  were  of  such  great  antiquity  that  their 
very  origin  was  attributed  to  the  Great  Spirit  that  per- 
vaded everything  in  nature.  No  man  had  made  them, 
but  Nature  itself  proved  them. 

There  was  a  time,  as  related  in  the  first  songs  of  the 
Red  Score,  when  all  beings  were  friends  and  were  happy 
and  contented  together.  Men  and  the  mothers  that 
had  been  given  them  for  companionship  and  to  keep  the 
race  going,  were  easily  pleased,  had  no  particular  work 
to  do  and  therefore  spent  their  time  by  enjoying  them- 
selves in  any  way  they  pleased.  The  fairy  manitos 
provided  them  with  food  whenever  they  wished  it. 

Into  this  ideal  existence  a  great  many  bad  things 
came  under  the  leadership  of  an  evil  being  who  stole 
secretly  among  the  Lenni  Lenape  or  "First  Men," 
according  to  their  story,  which  is  the  one  we  are  chiefly 
concerned  with  in  this  narrative. 

This  evil  being  is  spoken  of  as  a  Wakon  Powako  or 
literally  "Mystery  Priest  Snake"  or  "Spirit  Priest 
Snake"  and  was  a  very  strong  snake  indeed. 

Because  the  word  "Wakon"  is  Siouan  and  not  Al- 
gonkin,  and  the  Sioux  were  always  the  great  foes  of  the 
Lenni  Lenape,  we  are  probably  informed  here  as  to  the 


causes  of  the  ancient  feud  between  the  two  nations,  so 
old  as  to  have  become  legend  when  the  Lenape  began 
to  record  their  history.  There  was  much  unhappiness, 
wickedness,  crime,  bad  weather,  sickness  and  death 
among  the  first  men  after  this  person  or  being  came 
among  them.  These  things  all  being  governed  by  bad 
manitos  and  the  priest  in  whose  wake  they  followed 
appearing  as  a  powerful  magician,  the  logical  conclusion 
was  that  He  was  a  very  evil  person.  Therefore  his 
"snake"  was  both  a  strong  and  a  bad  snake — the  snake 
being  another  of  the  guardians  of  the  mysteries  as  well 
as  a  term  used  to  designate  an  enemy. 

At  this  time,  the  Lenape  and  their  friends  the 
Iroquois  all  lived  together  in  friendship  on  the  Atlantic 
Coast.  The  sudden  invasion  of  sickness,  say  old 
legends,  caused  them  to  move  further  inland,  down  the 
St.  Lawrence  river.  But  before  the  move  inward, 
Dzhemanito  caused  their  great  leader  and  champion, 
Nanaboush  to  receive  the  mysteries  of  the  Midewiwan 
including  the  healing  powers  of  nature. 

The  first  establishment  of  the  Midewiwan  was  upon 
the  Atlantic. 

It  is  not  improbable  that  Nanaboush  really  was  ruler 
of  the  native  population  of  eastern  Canada  and  North 
America  and  the  legend  that  makes  him  wage  a  long 
fight  with  evil  manitos,  who  eventually  are  defeated  and 
sue  for  peace,  by  offering  him  all  the  secrets  of  their 
power,  had  some  base  in  fact,  other  than  a  mere 
mythology  built  of  the  struggle  between  such  forces  of 
nature  as  winter  and  summer,  light  and  darkness. 

The  eastern  Siouans,  as  we  shall  see  further  along  in 
this  story,  were  a  highly  cultured  race  and  possessed  the 
mysteries  of  the  Wakon  Kitchewa,  otherwise  known  in 
the  Algonkin  tongues  as  Midewiwan.     If  the  "Wakon 


Powako" — termed  Maskanako,  Big  Snake,  later  in  the 
Walam  Olum  story — was  in  fact  one  of  the  Siouan 
warrior-priests  on  some  expedition  among  the  peoples 
to  the  north  of  him,  the  contest  between  this  "mighty 
magician"  and  the  national  culture  hero  of  the  Al- 
gonkins  and  Iroquois  might  very  well  have  led  to  the 
former  initiating  his  rival  into  the  true  mysteries. 

This  of  course  is  speculation. 

What  the  legends  that  begin  the  Walam  Olum  of  the 
Lenape  actually  Say,  is,  that  this  invader  brought  war, 
monsters  and  a  great  flood  to  his  aid.  The  flood  de- 
stroyed all  before  it.  Monsters  swallowed  many  of 
the  struggling  fugitives  who  found  refuge  in  the  high- 
lands where  they  were  saved  by  Nanaboush  and  his 
Spirit  Daughter. 

Nanaboush  lived  in  Tula  or  Turtle  Island,  which  I 
think  in  this  instance  refers  to  the  mountains  of  Labra- 
dor so  far  as  the  Lenape  were  concerned.  For  that 
matter  the  whole  continent  was  regarded  as  an  "Island" 
and  appears  in  mythology  as  a  Turtle's  Back. 

After  the  flood,  men  were  reduced  to  living  in  caves 
and  holes  in  the  ground,  gradually  they  recovered  them- 
selves and  began  to  organize  by  tribes.  This  flood 
appears  to  have  been  the  result  of  some  great  natural 
change  in  weather  conditions  such  as  the  melting  of  the 
last  ice  cap. 

The  Five  Nations  of  New  York  had  a  tradition  of 
escaping  from  the  horrors  of  this  time.  The  Great 
Spirit  led  them  through  a  gap  in  the  mountains  into 
New  York.  They  had  lived  north  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
where  giants  and  monsters  wrecked  their  homes.  The 
Master  reorganized  them  and  placed  them  in  their 
locations  where  the  white  men  first  knew  them. 

But  the  Lenape  and  the  rest  of  the  Iroquoians  spread 


throughout  Tula  Land,  eventually  to  become  a  strong 
league  of  hunters  and  home  makers  or  farmers.  The 
Lenape  were  the  hunters  and  always  considered  them- 
selves the  finest  and  best  of  all  peoples.  Their  Iroquoian 
friends,  the  Wendats,  were  to  become  known  in  history 
as  Wyandottes  or  Hurons.  The  ancient  name  of  them 
among  the  Algonkins  was  Talamatan. 

This  Algonkin  league  was  divided  originally  into  four 
divisions  or  clans,  whose  totems  (clan  badges)  were 
the  Turtle,  Eagle,  Beaver  and  Wolf.  At  its  head  was 
their  Chief  High  priest,  called  the  Nakapowa  or  snake- 
priest.  It  will  be  recalled  that  the  legendary  enemy 
priest  was  a  Powako  or  priest  snake. 

The  Great  Lenape  League  was  fully  organized  at 
the  time  the  historical  portion  of  the  Walam  Olum 
begins  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  century  of  our  era. 

That  its  evolution  and  upbuilding  must  have  been 
accompanied  by  much  war  and  bloodshed  over  countless 
centuries  is  doubtless  true.  But  the  Nakapowa  loved 

We  gather  from  many  native  legends  that  in  their 
westward  movement,  the  Lenape  were  very  probably 
preceded  by  other  Algonkin  peoples  from  the  vicinity  of 
the  Ottawa  river  and  indeed  still  other  Algonkin  tribes 
already  occupied  much  of  the  land  through  which  they 
passed  north  of  the  Great  Lakes,  to  establish  their 
national  headquarters  on  Rainey  River,  where  history 

On  reaching  the  country  of  "the  Lakes"  the  League 
encountered  its  first  serious  obstacle  to  further  progress 
in  the  western  Siouans,  ancestors  of  the  Dakotah  tribes. 
Buffalo  Land,  west  of  Winnepeg,  was  a  famous  hunt- 
ing ground  while  the  lakes  were  then  an  even  greater 
paradise  for  fishermen  than  now.    The  rivalry  between 


Siouxan  and  Algonkin  hunters  would  very  naturally  lead 
to  strife  and  war. 

The  well  organized  divisions  of  the  League  covered 
the  land  of  the  lakes  thoroughly,  with  a  military  pre- 
cision that  discouraged  all  other  races  save  the  Siouans. 
The  League  held  all  the  good  hunting  ground  from  the 
Minisipi  or  Churchill  river  to  the  Rockies  in  the  west 
and  south  to  the  Assiniboine  river. 

Further  south  were  the  Siouans,  who  struggled 
valiantly  to  retain  their  northern  hunting  grounds  with- 
out recognizing  the  dominance  of  the  League.  Theirs 
was  a  great  League  too! 

But  they  were  forced  further  and  further  southward 
until  only  one  of  the  Siouan  tribes,  the  Knisteneau  or 
"Stone  Men" — modern  Assiniboines — remained  to  ally 
themselves  with  the  League,  or  at  least  with  the  an- 
cestors of  the  modern  Cree,  who  may  or  may  not  have 
been  Lenape,  but  were  undoubtedly  within  the  protec- 
tion of  the  League  as  were  all  other  Algonkin  tribes, 
some  of  them  with  reluctance  to  be  sure,  as  after  events 

The  northern  division  of  the  League  being  further 
removed  from  this  strife,  was  regarded  as  free  to  send 
out  its  bands  for  exploration  or  settlement  in  any 
direction.  But  the  homes  of  the  more  southerly  divi- 
sions were  burned  and  destroyed  by  the  enemy  raids. 

The  Nakapowa  advised  a  return  to  their  old  eastern 
homes  rather  than  continue  this  sort  of  existence.  The 
tribes  became  divided  on  the  question  of  remaining  in 
possession  of  their  rich  hunting  and  fishing  preserves  at 
the  expense  of  continual  warfare,  or  migrating  east- 
ward to  Akomenep,  "Snake  Island"  in  search  of  peace, 
plenty  and  prosperity. 

"Snake    Island"   was   probably   no   other   than   the 


modern  Manitoulin,  one  of  the  sacred  places  marked  by 
a  Midewiwan  establishment,  and  the  search  for  it 
meant  merely  a  return  to  the  old  eastern  locations. 
"Snake"  also  means  "enemy"  when  used  in  other  con- 
nections than  those  referring  to  the  mysteries,  so  it  is 
not  surprising  that  the  venture  in  search  of  "Snake 
Island"  finally  agreed  to  between  three  of  the  League 
Divisions,  never  seems  to  have  "found"  it. 

Instead,  the  Lenape  "found"  and  conquered  "Snake 
Land" — as  will  presently  appear. 

First,  the  great  army  did  travel  back  eastward, 
lingering  and  fishing  along  the  northern  shores  of  Lake 
Superior.  Then  on  a  winter's  night  they  crossed  the 
frozen  waters  of  Sault  (590  A.D.)  St.  Marie  into  what 
is  now  the  upper  peninsula  of  Michigan,  where  they 
found  new  hunting  grounds  and  plenty  of  fishing. 

Here  were  the  Lenape  headquarters  for  some  years. 
But  Michigan  was  already  occupied  to  the  south  of 
them  and  possibly  around  them,  by  other  ancient  Algon- 
kin  tribes,  not  at  all  willingly  submissive  to  the  League. 
These  were  the  Muskodesh  or  ancestors  of  the  Sauk, 
Fox  and  "Fire  People"  or  Mascoutens  as  the  French 
called  them. 

Even  here  war  raised  its  head  and  evidently  in  a 
manner  to  infuriate  the  younger  generation  (who  had 
grown  up  in  this  "Spruce-Pine  Land")  that  in  no  way 
diminished  their  pride  of  ancestry  and  loyalty  to  the 

When  old  Bald  Eagle,  last  of  the  political  Nako- 
powas  died  the  people  elected  a  warrior  King,  Kolawil 
or  Beautiful  Head,  and  fought  a  successful  battle 
against  certain  enemies  who  held  a  fortified  mound. 

What  was  in  the  wind,  was  a  conspiracy  against  the 
league  by  certain  of  its  members,  who  were   allying 


themselves  with  the  Sioux.  After  this,  the  Kings  for- 
got peace  and  Spruce  Pine  Land  until  the  war  became 
a  reality.  Then  they  acted  from  their  old  capital  and 
sent  military  expeditions  both  east  and  south  where 
danger  evidently  threatened. 

The  Great  Snake  War—  633-54  A.D. 

This  Great  Snake  War,  began  about  the  second 
quarter  of  the  seventh  century,  while  the  Mayan  Empire 
in  Mexico  was  in  its  "Golden  Age"  and  continued 
during  the  time  that  the  Toltecs  arrived  in  Mexico 
from  the  North,  according  to  Morton,  (although  many 
suppose  the  Toltecs  were  from  the  tropics).  During 
the  war,  the  Aztecs  according  to  their  story,  were 
starting  from  some  place  in  North  America  into  Mexico 
and  the  Nahuas,  Toltec  tribes  settled  the  table  lands  of 
that  country,  making  Tula  their  capital. 

Mohammed  the  prophet  of  Islam  had  just  died  when 
this  war  began,  and  before  it  was  finished  his  followers 
had  conquered  Syria,  Persia,  North  Africa  and  a  part 
of  Spain. 

Pepin  and  his  sons  had  founded  a  new  dynasty  to  rule 
the  Franks  and  Bagdad  was  founded  by  the  Caliphs  of 
Islam  just  about  the  time  the  Grand  Sachem  of  the 
League  found  himself  King  of  Snakeland. 

The  Great  Snake  War,  according  to  our  chronology, 
lasted  for  133  years  and  no  less  than  thirteen  Kings 
reigned  and  fought  in  it,  the  last  ten  of  whom  could  not 
even  be  named  by  the  historian  who  later  made  a  record 
of  it. 

At  the  close  of  this  war,  the  Great  Lenape  League 
had  possession  of  all  the  land  west  of  the  Mississippi  as 
far  south  as  the  Missouri  river  and  west  to  the  Rocky 


Mountains,  exclusive  of  the  Missouri  River  Valley 
where  the  Siouan  League  was  forced  to  retire. 

The  first  peace  King  of  the  Lenape  was  called 
Langundowi,  which  means  Peaceable. 

His  successors  up  to  the  time  of  the  first  Tamanend, 
likewise  had  significant  names  indicating  not  only  the 
individual,  but  furnishing  volumes  of  information  to  the 
native  minstrels  and  historians  who  might  afterward 
sing  the  songs  of  the  Walum  Olum  in  full  as  it  were. 

For  the  records  of  the  American  Indian  were  memory 
aids  rather  than  manuscripts  recording  specific  events. 
One  word,  to  the  initiated,  might  contain  a  chapter. 

It  is  interesting  to  recount  these  names  of  the  Grand 
Sachems  in  connection  with  what  was  going  on  in  the 
more  civilized  nations  of  the  world  at  the  time  they 
ruled  in  this  one. 

First  after  Peaceable,  was  Not  Black  or  as  we  should 
phrase  it  in  modern  language,  "Not  so  Bad." 

These  two  names  as  will  readily  be  surmised,  explain 
that  after  the  coming  of  peace,  conditions  in  the  newly 
conquered  land  and  relations  between  the  Lenape  and 
the  conquered  enemy  were  "not  so  bad." 

Peace  treaties  were  always  sacred  affairs  brought 
about  by  the  wisest  elders  and  Mide  warriors  of  both 
sides  to  the  conflict,  assembled  in  council  and  invoking 
the  Great  Spirit  as  witness  to  the  solemn  engagements 
entered  into. 

Every  teller  of  the  story  would  know  that  the  Great 
"Calumet"  or  Pipe  of  Peace  had  been  smoked  in  this 
council  and  that  so  long  as  the  peace  king  reigned  there 
could  be  no  war.  When  the  dance  to  the  Calumet  had 
been  danced  and  the  ambassadors  of  the  former  foe  had 
returned  to  their  homes,  knowing  well  their  persons 
were  sacred  and  none  would  molest  them  on  the  journey, 


the  villages  of  the  conquered  Sioux  would  indeed  feel 
that  the  outlook  was  "Not  Black." 

In  Europe  Charlemagne  was  destroying  the  Lombard 

Much  loved  the  next  Lenape  peace  king  was  a  con- 
temporary of  Harun-al  Rashid  of  Arabian  Nights 
fame.  During  his  reign,  Northmen  were  invading 
England.  As  the  name  indicates,  the  Lenape  had  de- 
voted themselves  to  conciliate  the  inhabitants  of  the 
land  they  so  recently  fought.  What  the  League  had 
won  was  peace — and  rights  to  hunt  in  that  land — not 
the  land  itself,  which  was  the  property  of  the  Great 

The  Siouan  villages  were  left  undisturbed  once  the 
war  was  over,  and  they  were  beginning  to  love  the  new 
King — or  so  the  Lenape  imagined. 

The  Holy  One  was  elected  about  the  time  Charle- 
magne was  being  crowned  Emperor  at  Rome.  This 
Lenape  King  could  scarcely  have  been  other  than  the 
Kitchemite  or  High  Priest  of  the  Mide  himself. 

No  Blood  was  elected  at  the  beginning  of  the  32  Years 
War  in  Europe  to  subjugate  and  Christianize  the 
Saxons,  during  which  time  Charlemagne  the  Emperor 
died.  The  Lenape  nor  any  other  Indian  nation,  ever 
quarrelled  over  religion. 

Snow  Father  and  Big  Teeth,  the  next  Kings  present 
us  with  names  indicating  more  interest  in  the  ancient 
northern  homeland  where  the  League  stronghold  was. 
And  this  indicates  a  rather  thorough  conciliation  of  the 
conquered  Sioux  who  now  would  be  living  in  amity  with 
their  Algonkin  neighbors. 


Beginning  of  the  W  alam  Olum  (837  A.D.) 

Olumapi,  The  Tally  Maker,  who  first  began  the 
Walam  Olum,  may  have  learned  the  art  of  recording 
history  in  mnemonic  symbols  on  burnt  or  painted  bundles 
of  sticks,  from  the  more  cultured  Siouans.  While  he 
was  at  this  peaceful  pursuit,  three  royal  rivals  in 
Europe,  were  fighting  over  the  Roman  Empire  of 
Charlemagne  and  dividing  it  into  three  parts,  more  or 
less  corresponding  to  those  of  ancient  Gaul  as  men- 
tioned by  Julius  Caesar. 

Shiver-with-Cold,  the  Tally  Maker's  successor,  seems 
to  have  turned  the  attention  oof  his  people  to  this 
warmer  land  in  order  to  invite  settlement  and  to  inspire 
them  with  desire  to  practice  the  domestic  arts  of  the 
Sioux.  The  national  histories  of  France,  Italy  and 
Germany  began  with  the  Treaty  of  Verdun,  during  this 
peace  king's  reign!  Also  the  Russian  Empire  was 
founded  by  Rurik,  the  Saracens  were  besieging  Rome 
and  the  Northmen  plundered  Paris. 

Introduction  of  Agriculture.    (859  A.D.) 

Huminiend,  whom  irreverent  pioneers  would  prob- 
ably have  called  "King  Homminy,"  though  the  name 
means  Corn-Breaker,  lived  while  European  Popes  were 
excommunicating  each  other  and  wars  were  about  the 
only  thing  thought  of  abroad.  This  great  King  went 
south  into  Iowa  and  Missouri  to  study  first  hand  the 
manner  in  which  the  Sioux  grow  and  store  corn.  His 
people  were  hunters  and  fishers  and  not  farmers.  But 
he  introduced  them  to  agriculture  and  made  them  like 

Strong-Man  probably  followed  with  the  introduction 


of  other  Siouan  culture  programs.  He  was  evidently- 
successful  as  his  name  implies,  and  strengthened  his 
nation  by  increasing  the  education  of  his  people  in  the 
arts  of  peace. 

Salt  Man  who  followed  him,  needs  no  explanation  as 
the  King  who  introduced  the  Lenape  to  salt  manu- 
facture, at  which  the  Sioux  were  the  greatest  adepts.  In 
order  to  do  so,  they  must  have  learned  basket  weaving 
and  pottery  making  and  these  things,  together  with 
weaving  generally,  were  probably  among  the  innova- 
tions of  Salt  Man's  predecessor. 

The  Lenape,  like  most  Indians  of  the  north,  did  not 
use  salt.  Their  Eskimo  neighbors  and  enemies  thor- 
oughly abhorred  it  and  indeed  few  ancient  Americans 
either  manufactured  or  used  it.  Hence  this  innovation 
by  Shiwapi  or  Salt  Man,  marked  a  distinct  era  in 
Lenape  history.  It  was  probably  regarded  by  them  as 
the  final  touch  that  made  them  equal  in  civilization 
with  the  Sioux!  During  Salt  Man's  reign,  Alfred  the 
Great  in  England  was  about  the  only  European  monarch 
that  may  be  regarded  as  the  peer  of  this  civilizer  of  the 
Stone  Age.  The  Norsemen  were  just  colonizing  Ice- 
land, previously  colonized  as  well  as  discovered  by  the 
Irish.  Pueblo  tribes  were  occupying  the  Mexican 

The  First  Agricultural  Depression  (890  A.D.) 

Penkwonwi,  the  Little  Dried  Up  One,  had  the  sad 
misfortune  to  experience  the  first  great  agricultural 
depression  in  Lenape  history.  There  was  a  Great 
Drought  all  over  the  country,  no  rain,  corn  and  other 
crops  drying  up,  and  villages  starving — for  by  now  the 


Lenape   had  become   permanent   settlers   as   much   as 
their  Siouan  teachers. 

This  catastrophe  forced  the  King  to  great  exertions 
in  moving  the  suffering  back  toward  water  and  game. 
He  found  such  a  place  where  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis 
now  stand,  "The  place  of  Caves"  chief  of  which  was 
the  Wakon  Tebee,  Holy  House  or  burial  cave  of  ancient 
Siouan  chieftains.  There  was  also  good  corn  land 
there  and  the  seat  of  government  in  Snakeland  was 
doubtless  established  there.      (See  Appendix  Note  7). 

Wenkwochella,  "The  Fatigued"  was  next,  indicating 
that  his  generation  experienced  the  aftermath  of  this 
agricultural  depression  for  a  considerable  time  and  that 
the  King  himself  must  have  labored  incessantly  with 
counsellors,  to  restore  the  faith  of  the  Lenape  in  the 
new  values  acquired  by  them  from  his  predecessors. 
There  was  danger  the  whole  nation  might  once  more 
revert  to  the  nomad  life  of  their  ancestors,  which  meant 
a  greater  likelihood  of  war. 

This  was  during  the  golden  age  of  the  Arabs  in 

"The  Stiff  One,"  who  followed,  as  the  name  indicates, 
found  the  task  so  increasingly  difficult  that  he  was  forced 
to  be  a  strict  disciplinarian,  which  is  never  a  popular 
thing  for  a  ruler  to  be. 

Kwitikwond,  "The  Reprover"  was  even  a  worse 
martinet  and  so  much  disliked  by  the  younger  genera- 
tion that  many  secret  bands  of  adventurers  left  the  land 
altogether  to  seek  fame  and  fortune  independently 
elsewhere.  This  was  most  alarming  to  their  elders 
who  found  the  manpower  of  the  nation  dwindling  and 
were  forced  to  consider  the  effect  on  their  subjugated 
neighbors,  the  recalcitrants  within  the  League  and  the 
ancient  foe,  the  Siouan  League  on  the  Missouri. 


No  great  statesmanship  was  required  to  see,  that 
with  a  dwindling  manpower,  due  to  the  strict  discipline 
of  the  Reprover,  however  necessary  or  just,  the  Sioux 
would  not  be  human  if  they  did  not  attempt  to  regain 
their  old  lands. 

The  older  heads  therefore,  probably  deposed  "The 
Reprover"  or  else  acted  speedily  when  his  term  of  office 
would  ordinarily  expire,  and  elected  the  greatest 
humanitarian  of  the  nation  as  most  likely  to  please 
every  one  and  stop  the  exodus  of  the  young  braves. 

Kwitikwond,  the  Reprover,  held  power  while  the 
Icelanders,  now  50,000  strong,  were  establishing  their 
first  parliament. 

Makaholend,  The  Loving  One,  was  chosen  suc- 
cessor to  Kwitikwond  "The  Reprover"  and  was  the 
immediate  predecessor  to  the  first  and  greatest  Taman- 
end.  His  election  meant  an  entire  change  of  policy  for 
the  government  of  the  League  and  also,  that  the  respect 
in  which  his  person  was  held  was  counted  upon  by  the 
Grand  Councilors  to  offset  the  bad  impression  left  by 

The  Loving  One  could  scarcely  have  been  other  than 
the  chief  priest  of  the  Midewiwan  himself — the  one 
man  of  the  nation  who  had  more  to  do  and  say  about 
the  laws  of  the  Great  Spirit  and  the  manitos  of  each 
and  every  aspirant  to  initiation,  than  any  other.  It  is 
related  that  he  was  a  great  king  because  all  people  loved 
him  and  under  his  wise  guidance  the  villages  and  tribes 
did  draw  closer  together  for  the  common  welfare. 

He  removed  the  seat  of  government  to  Wisawana 
where  it  had  apparently  been  established  once  before 
since  this  removal  was  said  to  be  "again"  at  this  great 
corn  country. 

Wisawana,  as  I  understand  it,  was  the  Yellow  River 


Valley  of  Northeastern  Iowa,  a  place  known  to  every 
nation  in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  and  doubtless  beyond, 
as  sacred  to  all  peoples  who  foregathered  there  for 
trade  and  the  consequent  festivals — a  sort  of  inter- 
national Fairground.  (See  Appendix  Note  8). 

And  I  think  the  story  clearly  indicates  that  The  Holy 
One  was  the  teacher,  friend  and  guide  of  the  man  who 
became  Tamanend  the  first,  the  teacher  specially  pre- 
paring this  man  to  finish  his  work  of  peace  and  universal 
conciliation.  Athelstane  was  defeating  the  Danes  and 
Scots  in  England  about  the  time  The  Holy  One 

Thus  it  will  be  observed  that  the  Lenape  League 
turned  to  religion,  as  many  another  has  done,  in  its 
extremity.  But  there  wTas  this  difference  between  the 
European  nations  and  those  of  the  Red  Men — the 
latter  never  quarrelled  over  their  religion  whatever 
else  they  quarreled  over.  There  was  no  single  claimant 
to  supreme  power.  Every  nation  developed  its  own 
version  of  teachings  that  were  regarded  by  all  as 
directly  descended  from  the  Great  Spirit — so  great  was 
its  antiquity. 

Because  of  this  universality,  the  Priests  House  or 
Holy  Lodge  became  the  greatest  force  for  peace  in 
aboriginal  America.  The  Loving  One  would  naturally 
have  thrown  into  his  efforts  all  the  strength  and  power 
of  his  sacred  office.  This  gave  him  international  rights 
not  possessed  by  ordinary  Kings.  (See  Appendix  Note 

This  then  was  the  background  against  which  the  first 
Tamanend  achieved  a  reputation  that  persisted  for  a 
thousand  years. 

Tamanend  at  Wisawana 

Otho  had  not  yet  been  crowned  Emperor  of  the  Holy 
Roman  Empire  at  Rome  when  the  first  Tamanend 
arose  at  Wisawana, 

He  was  elected  King  of  the  Great  Lenape  League  to 
succeed  The  Holy  One  at  the  most  critical  time  in  its 
history  to  that  date  about  the  year  946  A.D. 

Following  the  Great  Snake  War  of  133  years  there 
had  ensued  185  years  of  peace  and  prosperity  now 
threatened  by  the  aftermath  of  the  first  agricultural 
misfortune  the  nation  of  new  agriculturists  had  ever 

It  was  too  late  to  recall  the  many  bands  of  young  men 
who  had  emigrated  to  parts  unknown,  but  not  too  late 
for  their  elders  under  wise  leadership  to  rebuild  the 
crumbling  fortunes  of  the  League  by  internal  and  inter- 
national policies  requiring  strong  leadership  to  put  into 

The  Loving  One  had  undoubtedly  prepared  that 
leader  in  his  favorite  disciple  Tamanend.  All  that  he 
knew  of  the  natural  laws  of  the  Great  Spirit,  preserved 
within  the  sacred  precincts  of  the  Midewiwan,  he  had 
communicated  to  his  beloved  initiate.  And  as  the  Loving 
One  laid  down  his  burden,  the  disciple  took  it  up,  and 
bettered  his  work. 

Tamanend  means  "beaverlike"  which  is  to  say 
Affable.  The  Beaver  was  considered  the  most  social 
of  animals.  Tamanend  was  therefore  named  so  in 
Lenape  history.  And  the  word  also  describes  his 
political  policies. 



The  scene  had  been  set  for  him  by  the  Loving  One  at 
Wisawana,  the  one  spot  in  the  Mississippi  Valley  where 
tribes  from  the  remotest  tributaries  of  the  Father  of 
Waters  came  to  celebrate  annual  feasts  and  to  trade, 
down  to  the  time  of  the  European  fur  traders  centuries 
later.  It  was  therefore  sacred  or  neutral  ground  during 
these  great  international  fairs. 

Tamanend  was  invested  with  supreme  power  equiva- 
lent to  that  of  any  modern  dictator.  But  he  never 
abused  it.  Moreover,  he  was  the  unanimous  choice  of 
his  people  for  the  office,  because  of  his  powerful  and 
affable  personality.  He  could  at  any  time  have  been 
deprived  of  his  leadership  had  he  abused  their  con- 

He  was  the  first  King  to  receive  the  title  Nekohatami, 
meaning  literally,  "He  the  First,"  because  he  was  first 
in  all  things  especially  in  the  manly  qualities  which  con- 
stitute the  ideal  peace  king  in  the  eyes  of  his  followers. 
(See  Appendix  Note  9). 

As  Heckewelder  had  it  from  the  Delawares,  this 
meant  that  he  was  foremost  in  wisdom,  virtue,  prudence, 
charity,  affability,  meekness,  hospitality  and  every  good 
and  noble  quality.  He  was  an  utter  stranger  to  all  that 
was  bad  in  the  Red  Man's  eyes. 

And  all  this  meant  that  he  was  not  only  Sakim  or 
King  but  also  Grand  High  Priest  of  the  Mide.  In  his 
own  person  he  united  the  political  and  religious  power 
of  the  League.  He  was  the  national  Pipe  Bearer  in- 
vested with  authority  to  declare  war  or  peace.  In  all 
things  concerning  his  nation  he  was  Nekohatami. 

The  fur  trader  Alexander  Mackenzie  relates  that  on 
his  journey  up  Rainey  River,  his  Indian  guides  pointed 
out  a  place  to  him  they  told  him  was  the  "Nectams" 
home,  explaining  that  the  Nectam  was  never  allowed 


to  make  war  but  was  a  peace  king  who  ruled  over  all 
Algonkin  nations  of  the  Lake  region  including  those 
along  the  Mississippi  and  that  he  presided  over  their 
grand  council  of  sachems. 

Whether  they  were  talking  of  a  modern  Nectam 
(obviously  shortened  from  Nekohatami)  or  this  ancient 
hero  Tamanend,  Mackenzie  does  not  say  and  perhaps 
never  inquired.  He  was  a  fur  trader  rather  than 

Be  that  as  it  may,  Tamanend  I  proceeded 
through  a  policy  of  universal  conciliation  to  repair  the 
internal  weakness  of  the  League  and  make  it  externally 
powerful  by  entering  into  treaties  with  other  nations. 

He  "came  as  a  friend  to  the  Lenape"  and  all  men 
were  his  friends  says  the  mnemonic  record  of  his  rule. 
The  inference  is,  that  he  conciliated  and  drew  together, 
not  only  the  various  tribes  and  villages  of  the  Lenape, 
but  all  their  allies  and  especially  the  turbulent  Algon- 
kins  not  of  the  Lenape  division,  who  now  and  then 
threatened  war  such  as  precipitated  the  Great  Snake 

And  in  international  relations  there  were  treaties 
confirmed  by  dances  to  the  calumet,  with  all  the  nations 
of  the  Mississippi  Valley  contacted  at  Wisawana. 
These  would  certainly  include  the  Sioux  in  the  west  and 
perhaps  the  Cherokee  and  Muskoki,  Natchez  and 
others  east  of  the  Mississippi. 

The  conclusion  of  peace  among  Indian  nations  always 
meant  mutual  recognition  of  rights  to  hunt,  farm  or 
fish  wherever  they  liked  in  the  lands  of  the  other,  pro- 
vided the  usual  courtesies  of  asking  permission  and 
killing  only  for  food  were  observed.  The  Great  Spirit 
alone  owned  the  land.  His  red  children  were  free  to 
use   the   fruits   from   it.      Nations   might   occupy   any 


particular  hunting  grounds  they  chose  without  objec- 
tion by  another  nation  already  in  occupancy.  The  two 
could  become  allied  and  so  help  each  other  provide  food 
and  clothing  for  their  homes. 

If  there  was  objection,  it  might  lead  to  war  unless 
there  were  other  hunting  grounds  as  good  elsewhere, 
but  if  peace  were  preserved  as  the  Great  Spirit  always 
wished,  that  peace  defined  the  boundaries  of  the  na- 
tion's land.  Without  peace  over  any  certain  region, 
there  were  no  definite  boundaries,  for  there  was  no 
certainty  of  rights  in  the  fruit  of  the  land. 

So  the  Great  Spirit's  wishes,  or  War,  were  the  only 
two  alternatives  possible  when  rival  claims  were  set  up 
to  the  same  hunting  grounds. 

Therefore  Tamanend  I,  really  rebuilt  the  Lenape 
League  to  its  former  prestige,  for  not  only  were  all  its 
people  united,  but  they  might  mingle  freely  with  all 
other  nations  and  be  sure  of  hospitality  that  would  be 
given  as  readily  as  they  themselves  would  offer  it. 

This  policy  of  universal  conciliation  marked  the 
reigns  of  many  succeeding  kings  and  prolonged  the  era 
of  peace  in  "Snakeland"  for  several  more  generations. 

But  no  other  Tamanend  appeared  after  this  one  for 
six  centuries ! 

His  immediate  successors  evidently  followed  in  his 
footsteps  as  best  they  could. 

The  next,  Strong  Buffalo,  was  Pipe  Bearer  and  there 
was  plenty  of  game  but  he  was  not  given  supreme  power 
nor  were  any  others  after  him.  He  flourished  about 
the  time  The  Mayan  City,  Chacanputan  was  destroyed 
by  fire.  Wisdom  also  seemed  to  mark  the  next  two 
reigns  of  Big  Owl  and  White  Bird,  whose  alert  minds 
functioned  west  of  the  Mississippi  about  the  time  Eric 
the  Red  began  a  three  year  exile  in  Greenland,  and  the 


Norseman,  Bjarni  Herjulfson  was  sighting  Labrador 
and  exploring  those  parts  of  the  Atlantic  Coast  he 
called  Huitramanland,  Marldand  and  Vinland. 

No  Algonkins  were  there  to  see  him  so  far  as  the 
Lenape  record  reveals.  The  Iroquoian  nations  may 
have  done  so. 

Hugh  Capet  in  France  was  just  founding  a  new 
dynasty  and  Vladimir  of  Russia  was  being  converted 
to  Christianity. 

While  Eric,  The  Red  was  founding  the  Republic  of 
Greenland,  Wingenund  (the  willing  one  or  the  mind- 
ful one)  was  High  priest.  He  devoted  himself  to  peace 
festivals  and  making  people  generally  happy.  This 
name  appears  centuries  later  as  that  of  another  priest, 
once  companion  of  "Captain  White  Eyes"  of  revolu- 
tionary fame,  and  later  a  Delaware  prophet — "false 
prophet"  the  whites  called  him. 

Rich  Again,  the  King  who  followed  was  a  contempo- 
rary of  Lief  Erickson  and  the  ruler  of  the  League  at  the 
peak  of  its  prosperity.  About  that  time  Lief  was  dis- 
covering the  shores  of  Labrador  and  the  Queecha  capi- 
tal of  Tolan  was  being  destroyed  in  Mexico,  scattering 
its  people  among  the  tribes  of  Honduras  and  the  Mayas 
of  Yucatan.   (1013). 

"Normalcy"  had  returned  and  with  it  the  dangerous 
envy  of  surrounding  nations,  especially  the  Sioux.  For 
Painted  Man  the  next  king,  indicates  something  of  this 
sort — that  a  few  war  decorations  might  be  helpful  in 
discouraging!  White  Fowl  reigned  while  Thorfin 
Karlsefni  with  his  three  ships  and  150  settlers  stayed 
three  years  in  America,  exploring  and  fighting  the 
natives  who  must  have  been  Iroquoians  for  they  were 
unknown  to  the  Lenape  so  far  as  the  record  reveals. 
The  Norse  trading  station,  together  with  that  of  the 


Irish  colony  on  the  Atlantic  coast,  undoubtedly 
familiarized  the  eastern  Indians  with  European  savages 
— but  the  Lenape  were  still  west  of  the  Mississippi. 
Their  records  do  not  mention  them. 

Second  Civil  War 

War  did  break  forth  and  found  the  nation  well  pre- 
pared under  the  leadership  of  Tumaokan,  Wolf-Wise- 

The  ancestors  of  the  Three  Fires  and  the  Assiniboine 
tribes  had  once  more  joined  forces  with  the  Sioux  as 
they  had  done  four  centuries  before  in  the  Great  Snake 

Tumaokan  (Father  Wolf)  was  able  to  handle  all 
comers  however  and  personally  slew  the  Chieftain  of 
the  Stonemen  or  Siouan  Assiniboine  tribes  which  had 
been  allies  of  the  League.  It  required  his  successor  too, 
in  order  to  subdue  the  Sioux  and  as  yet  a  third  King  to 
settle  the  trouble  with  certain  northern  foes  while  a 
fourth  King  found  it  impossible  to  conquer  the  Tawa 
rebels,  ancestors  of  the  Ottawa,  Ojibway,  etc.  These 
were  the  ring  leaders  of  the  revolt  within  the  League, 
in  which  they  doubtless  thought  they  had  as  much  right 
as  the  Lenape  to  provide  Kings. 

The  Midewiwan  seems  to  have  always  been  the 
special  care  of  theese  Rebellious  Algonkin  peoples  who 
claim  they  received  it  first,  long  ago  on  the  Atlantic 
before  the  western  migration.  The  Lenape  however 
always  claimed  the  right  to  furnish  the  Kings  and  these 
from  the  Turtle  Tribe — though  some  of  their  names 
indicate  other  Lenape  divisions  received  the  honor  at 
various  times. 

Be  that  as  it  may,  in  the  middle  of  the  eleventh  cen- 


tury,  the  continuance  of  this  civil  war  inherited  from  his 
predecessor  by  King  Opekasit,  led  to  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  episodes  of  ancient  history — the  "separa- 
tion at  Fish  River." 

The  second  rebellion  and  Siouan  war  had  lasted  some- 
thing less  than  45  years,  when  Opekasit  made  a  decision 
that  would  have  done  honor  to  a  far  more  civilized 
monarch  and  certainly  entitled  him  to  a  place  in  the 
Tamanend  legend  as  one  of  its  greates  idealists. 

During  this  war,  Europeans  were  coming  to  America 
in  the  persons  of  Lief  Erickson  and  his  followers  and 
Bjarney  Asbrandon's  Irish  colony,  but  as  the  Lenape 
were  still  west  of  the  Mississippi  these  events  meant 
nothing  to  them.  Nor  did  events  across  the  Atlantic, 
such  as  the  Moslem  invasion  of  India;  the  subjugation 
of  England  by  the  Danes;  the  addition  of  Bulgaria  to 
the  Byzantine  Empire;  crowning  of  King  Macbeth  of 
Shakespearean  fame  in  Scotland;  establishment  of  the 
College  of  Cardinals  at  Rome  ;William  the  Conqueror's 
capture  of  all  England;  and  the  fights  between  Pope 
Gregory  VII  and  Emperor  Henry  IV  in  which  they 
"deposed"  each  other. 

Among  the  peoples  of  greater  culture  far  south  of 
the  Lenape  League,  during  the  period  of  this  civil  war, 
the  Nahuas,  a  Toltec  race,  were  abandoning  Mexico 
and  the  whole  Toltec  kingdom  collapsed  from  civil  war. 
Yet  nothing  in  all  European  or  American  history  can 
compare  in  human  values,  with  the  action  of  the  Lenape 
King  described  in  the  next  chapter,  one  that  Europe  of 
that  day  could  not  have  comprehended  any  more  than 
it  can  comprehend  in  this  age  the  spirit  of  Tamanend 
that  prompted  it,  and  continues  to  prompt  Americans 
to  ideals  of  the  highest  order. 


Opekasit  at  Fish  River 

Opekasit  was  elected  Grand  Sachem  of  the  Great 
Lenape  League  about  the  year  1075  while  Europe  was 
ruled  by  the  Emperor  Otho  and  so  torn  with  wars  that 
the  crusades  were  soon  to  become  an  outlet  for  the 
civilized  Christian  nations  to  vent  their  piety  on  the 
heathen  of  the  Holy  Land. 

This  Grand  Sachem  was  so  greatly  affected  by  the 
horrors  of  civil  war  that  he  likened  it  to  a  quarrel  be- 
tween two  beloved  sons  and  voluntarily  proposed  a 
division  of  the  League  between  them.  He  would  him- 
self lead  the  Lenape  faction  eastward  in  search  of  new 
lands  while  the  Tawa  faction  would  be  left  in  possession 
of  the  ancient  home.     (See  Appendix  Note  10). 

His  decision  was  for  centuries  embalmed  in  legend 
concerning  a  great  King  of  the  Delawares  in  the  far 
west  who  had  two  sons  between  whom  he  divided  his 
Kingdom  one  of  whom  attacked  the  other.  The  one 
attacked,  horrified  at  fratricidal  strife,  led  his  followers 
east  rather  than  engage  in  warfare  with  a  brother. 

Opekasit,  (whose  name  is  translated  Oppossumlike  1) 
effected  this  peaceful  settlement  of  the  civil  war  at  a 
place  called  Namaes  Sipu  or  Fish  River,  possibly  on  the 
modern  Greenleaf  River  of  Minnesota.  Its  ancient 
name  was  Anibikanzibi  or  Fish  Spawn  river,  afterward 
changed  to  the  modern  Ashibagisibi  or  Greenleaf. 

If  not  here,  then  the  Grand  Council  of  the  League 



which  ironed  out  the  troubles  of  this  peaceful  King  by 
adopting  his  proposal,  must  have  met  at  Nemakan  in 
the  Rainey  River  region  which  seems  to  answer  even 
better  than  the  first  named  location  to  the  "Fish  River" 
of  the  record.     (See  Appendix  Note  11). 

Both  of  these  places  were  sacred  to  the  arts  of  peace, 
because  they  were  locations  of  Midewiwan  establish- 
ments and  the  natural  meeting  place  for  brothers  who 
were  to  dance  to  the  Calumet  and  smoke  the  pipe  of 
peace  after  a  prolonged  and  bloody  struggle. 

Perhaps  the  name  "Oppossum  Like"  borne  by  this 
King,  corresponds  to  the  modern  slang  "Foolish  Like  a 
Fox,"  for  in  effecting  this  settlement  between  the  rival 
factions  of  his  League,  Opekasit  still  remained  King! 
But  that  this  was  a  striking  illustration  of  the  Taman- 
end  ideal  there  can  be  no  doubt.  It  conciliated  all  the 
factions  within  the  League,  kept  it  united,  though 
divided  into  Western  and  Eastern  Divisions,  and  left 
the  Western  Division  to  guard  the  national  seat  of 
power  on  Rainy  River  against  all  western  foes. 

Opekasit  himself,  with  the  Lenape  tribes  and  their 
allies  the  Talamatan,  (known  to  modern  history  as 
Wyandottes  or  Hurons  and  to  themselves  as  Wendats) 
set  forth  after  this  separation,  to  settle  on  new  hunting 
grounds  they  might  find  east  of  the  Western  division's 
domain.  They  could  do  so  only  east  of  the  Mississippi 
River.  The  King  did  not  live  to  see  the  end  of  the 
journey.  But  he  set  out  stoutly  and  leisurely  in  a 
southeasterly  direction,  evidently  determined  to  proceed 
cautiously  and  first  learn  all  that  could  be  learned  of 
those  eastern  lands  where  he  hoped  to  colonize  his 
people.  The  Lenape  were  on  a  magnificent  venture  and 
called   the    exultant   westerners   to   whom   they   were 


leaving  their  hearts  desire,  the  ancient  homes,  "lazy 
ones''  because  they  stayed  behind. 

Their  general  goal  seems  to  have  been  first  of  all  the 
Wisawana  country  in  northeastern  Iowa.  Here  or 
elsewhere  they  tarried  awhile,  for  Opekasit's  successor 
was  called  Cabin  Man,  indicating  there  were  villages 
to  be  built  and  perhaps  farming  as  well  as  hunting  to  be 
done,  before  the  tribes  could  all  be  gathered  together 
and  provided  with  food  for  the  journey  into  the  un- 

The  Talaga,  (Cherokee)  were  known  to  be  in  pos- 
session of  the  eastern  lands  into  which  the  vast  army 
was  to  march  in  hope  of  peacefully  settling  on  its  rich 
soil.  But  Cabin  Man  and  his  successor  Strong  Friend 
both  believed  in  preparedness  first.  This  venture  might 
not  prove  entirely  peaceful !     (See  Appendix  Note  14) . 

Their  objective  was  far  more  peaceful  in  intention 
however  than  that  of  the  Crusaders  of  Europe  who 
launched  their  first  offensive  against  the  Saracens  about 
the  year  Strong  Friend  sent  ambassadors  to  the  Talega 
King,  asking  that  the  Lenape  be  allowed  to  settle  peace- 
fully on  Talega  soil,  a  request  which  was  refused. 

Strong  Friend  then  asked  that  his  people  be  allowed 
to  pass  over  the  Mississippi  and  through  the  Talega 
lands  further  eastward  where  they  would  seek  other 
hunting  grounds.  To  this  the  Talega  consented,  the 
legends  declare. 

JVar  With  the  Mound  Builders 

But  when  the  advance  guard  of  the  Lenape  did  cross, 
and  the  Talega  saw  what  an  immense  horde  they  might 
expect,  they  grew  alarmed,  attacked  the  first  comers, 


slew  many  of  them,  and  the  Lenape  in  a  fury  declared 
war.     (See  Appendix  Note  16). 

During  this  war  the  first  and  second  crusades  were 
fought  by  Europeans,  Frederick  Barbarossa  became 
Emperor  of  Germany  and  the  Plantaganet  dynasty  was 
founded  in  England  while  France  and  England  were 
both  ruled  by  Henry  II  of  Argon. 

The  Talega  were  as  unfamiliar  to  the  Lenape,  as  the 
Lenape  to  the  Talega,  for  events  proved  that  each 
nation  represented  powerful  confederacies  or  leagues 
that  could  have  more  readily  settled  their  differences 
through  the  Calumet  or  peace  than  by  war. 

Talega  Land  was  the  whole  upper  Ohio  Valley  and 
occupied  for  unknown  ages  by  races  which  our  pioneer 
forefathers  loosely  called  "Moundbuilders"  and  about 
whom  volumes  of  speculation  have  been  written.  (See 
Appendix  Note  12). 

The  earlier  of  these  races  were  Siouan,  living  chiefly 
in  the  lowlands  south  of  the  Ohio  and  occupying  at 
least  the  western  portion  of  the  Upper  Ohio  from  the 
juncture  of  the  Ohio  with  the  Mississippi  eastward  to 
perhaps  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio.  They  were  the  premier 
"Moundbuilders"  because  their  mounds  were  not  only 
fortifications  and  burial  or  dwelling  sites,  but  the  only 
ones  among  which  were  found  symbolic  mounds  doubt- 
less related  to  the  mysteries  or  religious  rites  as  prac- 
ticed in  their  version  of  the  universal  priests  house. 

In  the  Lenape  record  they  are  called  Allegewi  and 
we  meet  with  them  later  in  historical  times  as  the 
Akensis,  Catawba,  Ofo,  Osage,  Omaha,  Kapahaw, 
Missouri,  Winnebago,  and  other  Siouans  of  west  and 
south — quite  distinct  from  the  original  western  Sioux 
known  as  Dakotas. 

The  Talegas  themselves,  also  moundbuilders  as  were 


most  southern  Indians,  were  the  Cherokees  or  as  their 
own  name  has  it,  the  Tsalike — Snake  Like  Ones,  refer- 
ring to  both  physical  and  mental  qualities  perhaps ! 
They  were  the  dominant  people  of  the  Upper  Ohio 
Valley  at  this  time,  as  the  more  ancient  and  cultured 
Siouans  had  long  since  lost  much  of  their  agricultural 
civilization  with  the  coming  of  the  Buffalo.  The  two 
nations  were  now  leagued  together  under  a  Talega 
King  whose  rule  extended  from  the  Mississippi  to  the 
western  boundaries  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  York. 

When  war  was  declared  between  the  Lenape  and 
Talega,  the  former  were  in  all  probability  somewhere 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  river  while  the  Tala- 
matan  allies  were  camped  further  north.  They  were 
sent  for  at  once  and  the  invasion  of  Talega  actually 
begun  under  the  leadership  of  the  King  Kinnepend, 
The  Sharp  One,  at  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century. 

Kinnepend  was  successor  to  Strong  Friend,  whose 
peaceful  overtures  to  the  Talega  had  been  refused.  He 
was  made  Pipe  Bearer  to  carry  hostilities  over  the  river 
where  fortified  towns  were  encountered  that  proved  too 
strong  for  even  his  successor  to  carry.  This  style  of 
warfare  seems  to  have  been  new  to  the  Lenape.  (See 
Appendix  Note  17). 

More  than  twenty  years  elapsed  before  King 
Tenchekentit  the  firebuilder,  found  a  way  to  carry  these 
forts  by  storm  and  fire.  After  him  the  whole  land  was 
laid  desolate  by  the  Breaker-in-Pieces,  and,  according 
to  the  Lenape  historians,  the  Talega  were  all  driven 
South.      (See  Appendix  Note   18). 

But  not  even  when  official  peace  was  recorded,  had 
the  Lenape  any  real  comprehension  of  the  extent  of 
their  new  conquest  for  it  was  more  than  two  centuries 
before  another  King  sent  back  word  from  Pennsylvania 


that  he  had  at  last  discovered  a  land  that  was  not 
Talega ! 

The  Cherokee  or  Talega  proper,  may  have  retired  to 
their  lands  South  of  the  Ohio  but  they  unquestionably 
came  back  again  and  again  to  bar  the  way  to  the  east 
for  the  Lenape.     (See  Appendix  Note  19). 

The  Talegas  who  were  driven  from  the  Upper  Ohio, 
never  to  return,  were  Siouan  moundbuilders,  some  of 
whom  fled  South  across  the  Ohio  to  find  refuge  with 
their  allies  while  the  great  body  of  them  escaped  across 
the  Mississippi  and  scattered  north  or  south  or  up  the 
Missouri.     (See  Appendix  Note  25). 

As  for  the  victors,  who  supposed  that  they  had 
finished  the  war,  the  Lenape  undertook  to  settle  down 
on  all  lands  from  which  the  enemy  had  been  driven, 
south  of  the  Great  Lakes  and  send  their  Talamatan 
allies  back  north  of  the  Lakes  from  whence  they  origin- 
ally came ! 

Most  interpretations  of  the  old  legends  concerning 
this  war  between  the  "Red  Indians  and  the  White 
Indians"  as  the  Algonkins  termed  it,  hold  to  the  view 
that  the  Lenape  gave  the  Talmatans  their  choice  of 
lands  and  they  took  the  northern  half  bordering  on  the 
Great  Lakes,  while  the  Lenape  took  the  southern  half, 
bordering  on  the  Ohio  River.  The  mnemonic  record 
of  the  Walam  Olum,  however,  makes  it  clear  this  was 
not  the  case.     (See  Appendix  Notes  20  and  31). 

The  facts  seem  to  be  that  as  the  legends  relate,  the 
Lanape  considered  the  Talamatans  "lazy"  in  this  war 
and  reproached  them  with  being  poor  allies.  They 
gave  the  Talamatans  nothing  they  did  not  have  before. 

This  soon  provoked  conspiracies  against  the  League 
and  then  open  warfare,  in  which  the  Talamatans  were 
soundly  beaten  and  the  ancient  treaties  between  them 


and  the  Lenape  broken.  This  war  with  the  Talamatan, 
though  brief,  had  consequences  reaching  far  into  the 

It  was  waged  approximately  at  the  time  Saladin  con- 
quered Egypt  and  the  Scots  under  William  the  Lion 
acknowledged  the  soveranty  of  Henry  II  of  England. 

There  was  peace  for  more  than  a  century  and  a  half 
after  this,  during  which  the  new  land  of  promise  was 
thickly  settled  by  people  from  both  Western  and  East- 
ern divisions  of  the  league.  Villages  thickly  dotted  the 
land  and  much  corn  and  fruit  were  grown. 

King  Tamaganend,  Pipe  Bearer,  made  his  head- 
quarters on  the  White  River,  Indiana  probably  near 
where  Indianapolis  now  stands,  about  the  end  of  the 
twelfth  century.  In  Europe  the  Guelphs  and  Ghibel- 
lines  were  at  war  and  Richard  the  Lionhearted  together 
with  Frederick  Barbarossa  were  crusading  while 
Saladin  conquered  Jerusalem. 

Lekhihitin,  the  Recorder,  devoted  himself  to  bringing 
the  Walum  Olum  records  up  to  date  there.  Three  more 
crusades  had  been  fought  over  the  holy  land  and  the 
Seventh  Crusade  was  in  progress.  In  this  less  than  half 
century  of  peace,  since  Tamaganend,  Europe  saw  the 
first  College  of  Inquisition  established  to  control 
heritics;  Genghis  Kahn  invaded  China,  established  the 
Mongol  Empire  from  India  to  the  Caspian  Sea  and 
died  on  the  eve  of  European  conquest;  the  Albigenses, 
a  rationalistic  sect,  were  massacred  at  Beziers  for  con- 
science sake;  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  founded  the  Fran- 
ciscan Order  of  monks;  thousands  of  little  children 
were  permitted  to  throw  away  their  lives  in  the  craze 
known  as  the  Children's  Crusade;  King  John  of  Eng- 
land was  forced  by  his  Barons  to  sign  the  Magna 


Peace  and  prosperity  were  so  abundant  that  history 
began  to  repeat  itself  when  Little  Cloud  reigned  toward 
the  last  quarter  of  the  thirteenth  century — the  "little 
cloud"  being  the  departure  of  various  bands  of  adven- 
turous spirits  from  the  parent  stem. 

The  Nanticokes  and  Shawnees  were  among  the 
earliest  of  these  emigrants,  the  former  eventually 
establishing  their  own  kingdom  in  Maryland,  and  the 
latter  extending  their  path  (The  Warriors'  Path)  from 
Scioto  river  through  the  southern  states  into  Georgia, 
the  Carolinas  and  even  Florida.  The  Delaware  them- 
selves did  not  leave  until  nearly  a  century  later. 

In  the  35  or  40  years  between  The  Recorder  and  this 
"Little  Cloud"  on  the  horizon  of  an  otherwise  peace- 
ful life  for  the  Lenape,  the  Mongols  in  Europe  had 
conquered  Russia,  the  Poles,  the  Hungarians,  the 
Silesians,  and  Asia  Minor;  the  Eighth  and  Ninth  Cru- 
sades ended  in  the  death  of  St.  Louis  and  Louis  IX  who 
engineered  them ;  the  Mamelukes,  former  Tartar  slaves, 
ruled  Egypt;  the  Latin  Empire  of  the  East  was  over- 
thrown; Henry  III  of  England  had  at  last  given  the 
common  people  representation  in  parliament  in  the 
House  of  Commons;  Roger  Bacon  wrote  his  Magnum 
Opus  which  was  condemned  as  heretical;  Dante,  the 
Italian  poet  was  born  and  the  Hapsburg  dynasty  was 
founded  by  the  Emperor  Rudolph  of  Germany. 

This  latter  event  coincides  with  the  departure  of  the 
Naticokes  and  Shawnees  from  the  parent  stem  of  the 

Kublai  Kahn  founded  the  Yuen  dynasty  during  Little 
Cloud's  reign  in  America;  Cambridge  University  was 
founded  in  England;  Robert  Bruce  the  first,  warred  for 
the  Scottish  crown  with  John  Balliol  and  the  Christian 
power  in  the  Holy  Land  came  to  an  end. 


King  Kitchitamak,  Big  Beaver,  moved  the  royal  seat 
to  Wapahoning  or  White  Salt  Lick  Ohio  after  this. 

Onowutok,  The  Seer,  undertook  a  survey  of  the 
League  apparently  extending  his  tour  to  cover  not  only 
the  villages  east  but  also  those  west  of  the  Mississippi, 
visiting  them  in  person  and  strengthening  old  bonds 
wherever  he  could.  As  his  name  implies,  he  was  a 
peace  king  and  a  holy  one,  probably  preaching  the  good 
life  as  enthusiastically  as  did  Tecumseh's  brother  the 
Prophet,  in  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  Seer  flourished  and  surveyed  his  Kingdom  just 
as  the  Renaissance  began  in  Europe.  Duns  Scotus  the 
Subtle  Doctor  was  a  professor  at  Oxford  during  the 
Seer's  peaceful  progress  across  the  Upper  Ohio  Valley. 
The  Crown  of  Hungary  was  made  elective;  Scotland 
was  conquered  by  England  who  put  the  hero  Wallace 
to  death  while  King  Robert  Bruce  fell  at  Bannockburn. 

The  successor  of  The  Seer  reigned  peacefully  while 
DeMolay  the  grand  master  of  the  Knights  Templar  was 
burned  at  the  stake  in  Europe. 

Third  Civil  War 

Another  King  known  as  North  Walker,  continued 
the  survey  of  League  affairs  by  investigating  the  Cana- 
dian or  Western  Division  where  he  must  have  uncovered 
delinquencies  of  a  very  serious  nature,  as  a  third  rebel- 
lion in  connection  with  war  with  the  western  Sioux  had 
to  be  put  down  before  succeeding  Kings  could  continue 
their  peaceful  exploration's  up  rivers  and  into  the  Alle- 
gheney  mountains. 

This  brief  war  occurred  about  the  time  England  was 
forced  to  recognize  Scotch  Independence  and  in  the 
succeeding  40  odd  years  of  peace  in  America,  the  Stuart 


dynasty  was  founded  in  Scotland.  Also  the  English 
Edward  III  was  fighting  France  with  the  help  of  Ger- 
many, in  an  effort  to  restore  the  Plantagenet  prestige; 
Chaucer  was  born;  the  Battle  of  Crecy  proved  that 
bowmen  were  superior  fighters  to  armored  knights;  the 
Black  Death  ravaged  Europe;  Rienzi,  the  last  of  the 
tribunes  died  in  Rome  which  started  a  17-year  war  with 
the  Venetians,  Byzantines  and  Catalans;  the  Black 
Prince  defeated  the  French  King;  the  Ming  dynasty  was 
founded  in  China;  Timour  Lane  began  his  Asiatic  con- 

It  was  one  of  the  explorer  kings,  after  this  western 
rebellion,  who  sent  back  word  to  the  Ohio  Valley  that 
he  had  found  a  fine  new  land  without  "snakes"  in  it, 
east  of  Talega.  The  new  land  free  of  enemies  or  at 
least  of  Talega,  was  the  Susquehanna  Valley  in  Penn- 
sylvania, and  this  King  was  therefore  given  the  name 
of  East  Villager.    (1366). 

East  Villager,  as  we  know,  had  already  been  pre- 
ceeded  by  the  Shawnee  and  Nanticoke,  while  the  Dela- 
ware tribes  began  pushing  toward  the  Atlantic  in  the 
reign  of  his  predecessor  and  were  probably  even  then 
with  him  on  the  Susquehanna  headwaters. 

According  to  their  legends,  they  arrived  on  the  Dela- 
ware River  in  the  year  1397  after  "wandering"  for 
forty  years.  The  country  we  know  as  Pennsylvania, 
received  the  name  of  Winikaking  or  Sassafras  Land, 
because  of  the  river  banks  covered  with  Sassafras. 

The  Delaware  were  building  their  little  nation  on  the 
Atlantic  while  the  English  parliament  was  burning 
heretics  and  Queen  Margaret  united  Norway,  Sweden 
and  Denmark  in  one  Kingdom;  China  was  completing 
the  Yu-Ho  canal. 

The   League    King   now   alternated  between   head- 


quarters  on  the  southern  banks  of  the  Susquehanna  and 
those  established  in  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey. 
The  long  trek  was  over  and  the  Lenape  were  once  more 
on  the  Sun  Salt  Sea  of  their  ancestors  where  they  made 
wampum  and  settled  down  to  build  some  fifteen  minor 
kingdoms  along  the  coast  from  Maine  to  Florida. 

Last  of  the  racial  stocks  to  break  from  the  parent 
stem,  so  far  as  the  record  shows,  were  the  Wabanaki 
and  Mohegans,  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  fifteenth 

Europe  at  about  this  time  was  founding  the  Univer- 
sity of  Salamanca  in  Spain;  burning  John  Huss  at  the 
stake  ;  discovering  the  Madiera  Isles.  Joan  of  Arc  was 
preparing  for  her  career,  which  a  few  years  later  was 
also  to  end  by  burning  at  the  stake — not  at  all  an  ex- 
clusive Indian  custom. 

Then  began  the  gradual  weakening  of  the  Eastern 
Division  of  the  League  which  was  to  produce  the  second 

Like  a  mighty  tidal  wave,  the  Lenape  League  had 
swept  all  obstacles  before  it  until  it  reached  the  Atlantic 
shores,  when  it  began  to  dash  itself  peacefully  into 
fragments,  that  new  tribes,  confederacies  and  leagues 
might  be  formed  under  ambitious  leaders. 

Inevitable  conflict  with  the  Five  Nations  League  of 
New  York,  became  the  first  serious  bar  to  the  rule  of 
the  Lenape  Kings  over  all  the  Atlantic  seaboard  almost 
to  Florida.  These  Iroquois,  called  Mengwae  by  the 
Lenape  and  "Mingoes"  by  the  later  Europeans,  were  of 
the  same  racial  stock  as  the  Talamatans  and  had  doubt- 
less been  a  dissatisfied  witness  of  the  war  with  Talega  in 
which  their  Talamatan  kinsmen  aided  the  Lenape 
against  their  other  kinsmen  the  Cherokee. 

The  Five  Nations  were  naturally  quarrelsome  with 


each  other  and  with  other  Iroquoian  tribes  around  them, 
such  as  the  Eries,  Andastes,  Wendats,  Susquehannocks. 
But  now  they  were  entirely  surrounded  by  the  Algon- 
kins,  cut  off  from  the  Atlantic  coast  and  while  secure  in 
their  natural  strongholds  in  New  York,  were  in  no 
mood  to  trust  to  the  peaceful  intentions  of  the  Algon- 
kin  nations. 

Whoever  the  agressor,  war  with  the  Mengwae  began 
early  in  the  fifteenth  century.  It  is  recorded  that  King 
Wulitpallat,  Good  Fighter,  made  both  the  Mengwae 
and  the  Eries  "tremble."  He  "fought  against  the 
North,"  by  which  we  may  conclude  the  trouble  was  not 
started  by  him  in  his  peaceful  occupation  of  the  south- 
ern banks  of  the  Susquehanna. 

Nor  does  it  appear  that  he  knew  or  cared  anything 
about  the  quarrels  between  the  Five  Nations  and  such 
other  Iroquoian  tribes  as  the  Eries. 

It  was  this  war  that  the  Second  Tamanend  stopped. 

It  was  being  waged  about  the  period  that  Guttenburg 
invented  the  first  printing  press  and  the  Portuguese 
began  to  import  slaves  from  Africa. 

Good  Fighter  was  the  last  of  three  Kings  immediately 
preceding  Tamanend  II.  He  had  been  troubled  with 
forebodings  of  the  inevitable  conflict.  At  the  very  peak 
of  prosperity  and  the  arrival  of  the  main  body  on  the 
Atlantic  coast,  marked  in  history  by  King  "Becoming 
Fat,"  the  Iroquois  must  have  given  evidence  of  prepara- 
tions to  resist  these  invaders  of  the  east. 

The  names  of  these  three  kings  tell  the  story  con- 
cisely. They  were,  Red  Arrow,  Painted  man  and  Good 
Fighter.  The  Red  Arrow  is  a  war  arrow.  Painting 
means  preparation  for  war. 

Makiawip  or  Red  Arrow,  was  elected  King  about 
1410;  Painted  Man  1424;  and  Good  Fighter  1438. 

Tamanend  II 

Iroquois  legend  serves  to  fix  exactly  the  year  that 
the  second  Tamanend  arose,  providing  our  independent 
chronology  based  on  Algonkin  references  is  even 
approximately  correct. 

There  was  an  eclipse  of  the  sun  in  the  year  1451  that 
so  frightened  the  superstitious  Iroquoian  nations  that 
they  abandoned  all  thoughts  of  war,  including  a  threat- 
ened civil  war.  Wise  leaders  of  the  Senecas,  aided 
doubtless  by  equally  wise  and  unsuperstitious  leaders 
from  the  other  nations  involved,  took  advantage  of  this 
natural  phenomenon  to  securely  bind  their  followers  to 
terms  of  peace  that  were  hazily  remembered  as  late  as 
the  American  Revolution.  (See  Apoendix  Note  21). 

Gyantwahchi,  the  Seneca  chief,  known  by  the  name 
of  Cornplanter  to  the  Americans,  told  his  white  friends 
about  this  eclipse  just  after  the  Revolution  and  the 
advantage  taken  of  it  by  the  wise  Sagonyuthna  to 
effectually  reorganize  the  Five  Nations.  Cornplanter 
seemed  to  confuse  this  event  with  the  established  of  the 
Long  House  by  Hiawatha  however,  so  that  utter  reli- 
ance cannot  be  placed  on  his  story. 

That  the  eclipse  occurred  however,  astronomy  has 

So  closely  does  the  date  coincide  with  the  chronology 
made  possible  for  the  Walum  Olum  by  its  two  refer- 
ences to  the  coming  of  whites  from  over  the  Atlantic 



Ocean,  (and  a  few  secondary  aids  from  Lenape 
legend)  that  it  seems  highly  improbable  that  the  second 
Tamanend  could  have  arisen  at  any  other  time  than 
the  year  of  this  eclipse. 

We  need  not  enter  into  argument  over  reasons  for 
assuming  this  to  have  been  the  date,  as  the  matter  is  of 
little  consequence,  save  that  it  may  furnish  the  most 
powerful  incentive  for  another  Tamanend  to  appear  on 
the  scene.  Indeed  a  King  of  such  acumen  as  a  Taman- 
end, could  not  have  failed  to  take  advantage  of  a  total 
eclipse  of  the  sun,  to  further  the  ends  of  peace  with  more 
superstitious  people  than  himself! 

So,  we  may  assume,  that  while  the  War  of  the  Roses 
raged  in  England;  the  Renaissance  of  the  Arts  was 
beginning  in  Europe,  and  the  capture  of  Constantinople 
by  the  Turks  was  ending  the  Eastern  Empire  of  Chris- 
tendom, equally  important  events  were  forward  in 

Tamanend  II  reigned  from  1451  to  1453  and  not 
only  succeeded  in  ending  the  war  with  the  Mengwae  but 
in  conciliating  all  nations  with  which  the  Lenape  had 
relations  and  in  bringing  the  clashing  elements  of  his 
own  league  together. 

He  did  this  in  North  America  while  more  civilized 
nations  in  central  and  South  America  were  still  involved 
in  bloody  wars.  Mayapan  was  overthrown  1460; 
Peruha  was  conquered  by  the  Inca  Tupak  Yupanki  the 
same  year. 

"All  made  peace,  all  were  friends  and  the  houses  of 
all  were  united  by  this  great  one,"  says  the  mnemonic 
record  the  Walum  Olum.  Two  verses  that  follow,  un- 
fortunately omitted  in  the  original  transcript  of  this 
ancient  tally,  might  have  thrown  additional  light  upon 
his  deeds. 


But  this  is  enough  to  indicate  what  actually  took 
place  when  the  contemporaneous  facts  are  known. 

Treaties  of  peace  were  entered  into  with  the 
Cherokee  and  their  allies  throughout  the  ancient  Talega 
Land  and  the  new  land  of  Sassafras;  the  Mengwae; 
the  Eries,  and  the  Sioux.  Western  and  Eastern  Divi- 
sions were  again  harmonized;  the  ancient  Talamatan 
allies  were  conciliated  and  the  minor  leagues  into  which 
the  Great  League  power  had  been  siphoned  off,  were 
cemented  together  under  leadership  of  Tamanend. 

To  his  successors,  this  Tamanend  left  a  rejuvenated 
League  of  Nations  at  peace  with  each  other  and  with 
similar  Leagues  of  Nations  occupying  all  the  lands  east 
of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  north  of  Texas.  All 
water  roads  were  open,  so  that  any  Red  men  who  chose 
could  travel  by  boat  with  short  portages  from  any  part 
of  the  land  to  another. 

A  New  Englander  in  his  canoe  could  paddle  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  or  the  furthest  western  reaches 
of  the  Missouri  without  molestation.  The  Calumet 
was  his  passport.  Curiously  enough,  white  historians 
seem  generally  to  have  supposed  there  was  little  com- 
munication between  the  natives  of  widely  separated 
regions  of  the  continent. 

Yet  both  legend  and  occasional  information  gathered 
by  ethnologists,  missionaries  or  pioneers,  attest  the  con- 
trary. An  early  missionary  tells  of  meeting  in  China, 
an  Indian  woman  slave  he  once  knew  in  America. 
(See  Appendix  Note  22).  Wampum  belts  with  infor- 
mation certainly  apprized  northern  Indians  of  the  first 
arrival  and  atrocities  of  Spaniards.  Three  Algonkin 
tribes  on  the  Pacific  coast,  are  probably  descendants  of 
warriors  from  the  Great  Snake  War  or  else  those  who 
''secretly"  abandoned  the  League  during  the  unhappy 


reign  of  the  "Reprover,"  in  the  long  peace  that  followed 


The  deeds  of  this  second  Tamanend,  together  with 

those  of  the  first,  were  now  to  be  sung  in  all  festivals 
where  Algonkins  foregathered.  The  accumulation  of 
tradition  that  clustered  around  them,  was  to  interest 
the  coming  European  settlers  in  future  centuries  as 
something  so  peculiarly  American,  they  wished  to  emu- 
late Tamanend  in  their  thoughts  if  not  their  deeds.  It 
seemed  to  be  one  sure  way  to  conciliate  the  savages. 

And  these  whites  were  not  long  in  coming. 

When  they  arrived,  they  found  the  Indians  approxi- 
mately where  the  boundaries  of  Tamanends  treaties 
must  have  left  them  in  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth  cen- 
tury. These  boundaries  were  not  fixed  by  surveyors  but 
depended  upon  conditions  of  peace  and  amity  within 
areas  determined  by  occupancy — usually  landmarked  by 
rivers  of  some  importance. 

The  Indian  names  of  hundreds  of  such  landmarks, 
together  with  the  ancient  titles  of  their  holy  places, 
fair  grounds,  villages  and  other  meeting  places,  mostly 
retained  by  the  white  man  to  the  present  time,  confirm 
and  make  clear  the  details  of  the  supposed  prehistoric 
life  in  America,  very  much  as  here  outlined. 

When  this  history  is  better  known,  a  great  deal  of 
nonsense  concerning  the  savagery  of  these  Stone  Age 
Americans  must  be  abandoned.  It  may  even  become 
a  question  whether  or  not  the  European  custom  of  burn- 
ing people  at  the  stake  was  ever  practiced  by  the 
Aboriginals  until  the  Spaniards  introduced  it! 

Leagues  Under  the  Mide  Cross 

The  cross,  that  the  first  missionaries  from  Europe 
believed  evidence  of  previous  attempts  to  Christianize 


the  natives — a  little  more  successful  than  burning  at  the 
stake — as  we  know  now  was  their  own  conception  of  a 
symbol  of  law  handed  down  by  the  Great  Spirit  to  their 

It  was  the  cross  of  the  Mide  and  marked  the  pos- 
sessor as  at  least  knowing  the  Tamanend  ideals  of 
liberty  of  thought  and  action.  Not  to  believe  in  them 
was  to  align  one  with  Bad  Manito!  (See  Appendix 
Note  24). 

As  we  may  roughly  conceive  them  to  have  been  at  the 
time  of  the  second  Tamanend,  the  countries  of  the  seven 
important  native  Leagues  of  Nations  east  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains  were  as  follows: 

1.  Lenape  League,  north  of  a  line  to  the  Rockies 
from  or  slightly  below  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  River 
to  the  Churchill  river  in  Canada,  (exclusive  of  the 
Missouri  River  system  itself)  constituting  the  Western 
Division  of  the  League,  with  its  capitol  on  Rainey  River. 
Thence  eastward,  embracing  the  Upper  Ohio  Valley, 
and  Pennsylvania  south  of  the  Susquehanna  river  and 
southward  coastal  states  between  the  Atlantic  Ocean 
and  the  Allegheney  Mountains  to  or  beyond  the 
Savannah  river,  constituting  the  Eastern  Division  of 
the  League. 

2.  Nadowe-is-iw  League  or  Dakotah  federation  of 
Siouans,  occupying  the  entire  Missouri  River  system 
save  at  such  points  as  the  Algonkins  may  have  driven 
them  from  the  head  waters  of  some  tributaries  and 
from  the  mouth  of  the  river  itself. 

3.  Various  nations  of  the  Allegewi  or  Tallagewi 
who  formerly  occupied  the  Ohio  Valley  but  were  ejected 
by  the  Lenape  in  the  Tallega  War  to  find  asylum  chiefly 
in  the  west  in  Arkansas,  and  elsewhere  below  the  Lenape 
near  their  former  allies;  on  the  Missouri  among  kins- 


men,  the  western  Sioux,  who  do  not  seem  ever  to  have 
liked  them  very  well;  or,  like  the  Winnebagoes,  among 
their  former  enemies.  How  closely  these  Siouans  were 
knit  together  in  the  so  called  Deghiha  Confederacy  is 
hard  to  determine. 

4.  The  Iroquois  League  of  Five  Nations  of  New 
York,  from  the  Mohawk  River  to  the  Great  Lakes, 
surrounded  on  all  sides  by  the  Lenape  with  some 
neutral  tribes  of  Hurons  in  Canada  and  on  the  west 
and  buffer  enemy  tribes  of  Iroquoians  between  them 
and  the  Lenape  on  the  south  and  southwest. 

5.  The  Talega  or  Cherokee  League,  embracing 
some  Siouan  allies  such  as  the  Catawba,  west  of  the 
Allegheney  Mountains,  in  Virginia,  Georgia,  Alabama, 
Tennessee  and  the  Carolinas  and  adjoining  the  Chicka- 
saw nation  (Muskoki)  on  the  west  and  southwest. 
Their  capitol  was  Kuttawa  in  Georgia. 

6.  The  Coweta  or  Muskoki  League  (to  figure  in 
later  centuries  as  the  Creek  Confederacy)  from  Florida, 
South  of  the  Cherokee,  on  the  Savannah  and  west  of 
them  to  the  Mississippi  northward  into  Tennessee,  thus 
controlling  the  lower  Mississippi  River.  Their  chief 
capitol  at  this  time  was  probably  Coweta  in  Mississippi, 
though  scarcely  of  more  importance  than  Mauville  in 
Alabama,  destroyed  by  De  Soto.  Allied  with  or  else 
embraced  within  this  League  were  the  Natchez,  a  people 
from  Mexico  originally.     (See  Appendix  Note  30). 

7.  Wendat  League,  (modern  Wyandotte  or 
"Huron")  north  of  the  St.  Lawrence  River  and  on  the 
Great  Lakes  to  west  of  the  Five  Nations.  Their 
ancient  capitol  was  Hochelega  near  where  Montreal 
now  stands. 

The  three  immediate  successors  of  Tamanend  II 
carried  out  the  Tamanend  policies  of  universal  concilia- 


tion  more  by  their  observance  of  the  status  quo  than  by 
active  prosecution  of  the  ideals. 

Kitchitamak,  Big  Beaver,  was  content  to  "tarry  in 
Sassafras  Land"  which  is  to  say  to  continue  to  uphold 
the  dignity  of  the  League  as  Tamanend  had  left  it,  from 
the  Susquehanna  River  capitol. 

Wapahakey,  White  Body  on  the  contrary  preferred 
the  delights  of  the  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jersey  shores 
while  receiving  ambassadors  and  dispensing  the  royal 
wisdom  concerning  the  advantages  of  peace.  He  was 
a  contemporary  of  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  of  Spain, 
whose  marriage  joined  Castile  and  Leon  to  Aragon, 
prepared  the  way  for  the  expulsion  of  the  Moors  which 
the  Queen  celebrated  by  financing  the  expedition  of 
Columbus  to  this  continent. 

Unfortunately  White  Body  was  entirely  unaware  of 
these  other  whites  soon  to  disturb  the  serenity  of 
America,  or  he  would  doubtless  have  bestirred  himself 
more  than  he  did  to  keep  alive  the  Tamanend  ideals 
among  all  nations  on  the  continent.  Nor  did  he  know 
that  the  War  of  Roses  in  England  had  just  ended  or 
that  Louis  XI  of  France  succeeded  after  a  four-year 
struggle  in  breaking  the  feudal  power  of  his  prices. 
White  Body  was  a  duly  elected  sovereign  who  would 
not  have  dreamed  of  questioning  the  will  of  his  Grand 
Council  had  it  opposed  him. 

In  consequence  of  this  easy-going  and  trustful  policy 
of  the  successors  of  Tamanend  II,  who  wTere  enjoying 
the  comforts  of  peace  and  prosperity  too  much  to  worry 
much  over  the  future,  the  next  King  Pitinumen,  who 
must  have  been  a  mere  child  in  Tamanend's  time, 
turned  out  to  be  even  less  of  a  statesman  than  his  three 
predecessors.     (1498  A. D.) 


History  records  him  as  "The  Man  Who  Makes 

It  is  also  recorded  with  laconic  brevity  that  at  this 
time  whites  were  coming  over  the  eastern  sea. 

Poor  Pitinumen  was  wholly  unprepared  to  cope 
either  with  the  whites  or  his  own  mistakes. 

Had  he  been  more  alert  to  affairs  further  west  he 
might  have  learned  that  far  to  the  south  a  belt  of 
wampum  from  still  further  south  told  of  strange  and 
terrible  whites  in  clothes  of  iron  had  preceeded  the 
voyage  of  John  Cabot  which  is  mentioned  in  the  Dela- 
ware record. 


Mistakes  of  Man  Who  Made  Mistakes 

Pitinumen  probably  was  as  much  in  favor  of  the 
Tamanend  ideals  as  any  modern  politician  is  in  favor 
of  the  "peepul"  and  what  they  want. 

But  his  mistakes  cost  his  people  dearly. 

He  evidently  offended  the  Cherokees  of  the  south, 
or  their  Chickasaw  allies,  or  both,  in  some  manner, 
thus  laying  the  foundations  for  a  good  sized  war  which 
was  to  simmer  and  boil,  until  it  had  broken  the  power 
of  the  League's  eastern  division  completely  and  threat- 
ened the  supremacy  of  the  western  division  even  west  of 
the  Mississippi. 

Pitinumen  did  not  have  to  fight  this  war,  his  were 
merely  mistakes  of  diplomacy  which  are  evidently 
blamed  in  the  history  for  having  caused  it. 

The  entry  of  Europeans  upon  the  scene,  together 
with  their  magical  firesticks,  which  the  warriors  pro- 
cured as  quickly  as  they  could,  likewise  weighted  the 
mistakes  of  this  King  to  the  disadvantages  of  his  side. 
History  does  not  blame  him  for  what  the  whites  did 
of  course,  but  had  his  League  followed  the  policies  be- 
queathed by  Tamanend  a  little  more  closely,  they  might 
have  beaten  the  Iroquois  to  those  guns! 

Tamanend  believed  in  preparedness. 

Mistakes  were  made  in  Europe  too  at  this  time. 
Savonarola  was  burned  at  the  stake  because  of  his 
Republican  ideas. 



Makelomush,  Much  Honored,  the  immediate  suc- 
cessor of  Pitinumen  had  no  especial  troubles  to  contend 

Wulakiningus,  The  Well  Praised,  the  next  King, 
was  the  one  who  began  to  reap  the  fruit  of  the  mistakes 
made  by  King  Pitinumen.  He  was  forced  into  war 
with  the  mountain  Cherokee  and  the  Coweta,  their 
allies,  just  about  the  time  Martin  Luther  started  his 
Reform  movement  in  Europe,  and  during  which  Cortez 
was  invading  Mexico  and  giving  all  whites  a  bad  reputa- 
tion with  native  Americans  all  over  the  continent.  (1516 

This  seemed  to  arouse  the  succeeding  Kings  to 
strenuous  endeavors  toward  reviving  the  policies  of 
Tamanend  for  the  next  King,  White  Otter,  promptly 
renewed  friendship  with  the  old  allies  of  the  Lenape, 
the  Talamatans,  now  much  closer  in  sympathy  with  the 
western  than  with  the  eastern  division  of  the  League. 
He  was  a  contemporary  of  the  Medici,  who  were 
driven  from  Florence,  Italy,  about  this  time. 

White  Horn,  his  successor,  a  contemporary  of  Henry 
VIII  of  England,  and  Sir  Thomas  Moore,  who  was 
beheaded  by  Henry,  hastened  to  make  friendly  visits  to 
the  Talaga  in  order  to  appease  their  wrath,  and  at  the 
same  time  inspecting  his  own  Algonkin  allies,  the 
Illinois  tribes,  the  Shawnee  and  the  Kanawhas  of  West 
Virginia.  These  were  in  position  to  offer  powerful 
defense  in  case  of  a  general  uprising  of  Talega  and 
Muskoki  foes. 

Nitispayat,  (translated  Coming  as  Friend)  went  to 
the  Great  Lakes  to  interview  all  his  "children"  there 
and  it  may  be  assumed  he  did  so  satisfactorily,  for  his 
successor,  Cranberry  Eater  continued  the  good  work  of 
treaty  making  and  conciliation  in  the  north  among  the 


Tawa  almost  to  the  exclusion  of  affairs  at  home. 
Nitispayat's  reign  coincides  with  Ferdinand  DeSotos 
discovery  of  the  Mississippi  River  and  Cranberry 
Eater's  with  such  European  pastimes  as  the  beheading 
of  Queen  Mary  the  Catholic  in  England,  and  the  burn- 
ing at  the  stake  of  the  scientist-philosopher  Michael 
Servitus  by  the  Calvinists  in  Geneva,  Switzerland.  Also 
with  the  burning  at  the  stake  of  the  English  reformers 
Hugh  Latimer  and  Nicholas  Ridley,  and  the  Peace  of 
Augsburg,  which  ended  the  German  war  between 
Catholics  and  Protestants.  Also  with  the  burning  at 
the  stake  of  Archbishop  Cranmer  in  England. 

Had  Cranberry  Eater  been  informed  of  these  little 
affairs  he  would  doubtless  have  thanked  the  Great 
Spirit  that  fights  over  religion  was  one  trouble  neither 
he  nor  any  other  King  in  America  ever  had  to  contend 

Lowaponskan,  North  Walker,  his  successor,  was  also 
happily  ignorant  of  such  European  events  during  his 
reign  as  the  Huguenot  wars  which  sent  a  colony  of 
Huguenots  to  settle  on  St.  John's  River  in  Florida, 
where  they  were  massacred  to  a  man  by  the  Spaniards 
of  St.  Augustine  shortly  before  Queen  Elizabeth  of 
England  took  Queen  Mary  of  Scotland  prisoner  to 
hold  for  beheading  some  years  later. 

Instead  of  these  foreign  horrors  to  trouble  him, 
North  Walker  also  spent  his  time  in  North  with  the 
Tawa  (Ottawa)  and  Huron  allies  residing  at  the  Noisy 
Place  of  Ganshewenik,  otherwise  known  as  Niagara 
Falls,  where  he  could  attend  to  both  keeping  the  western 
division  leaders  in  line  and  watch  the  Five  Nations. 

Niagara  was  the  Iroquois  name. 

All  these  endeavors  toward  keeping  the  peace  by  a 
policy  of  watchful  waiting,  deserved  a  better  fate  than 


befell  them.  Apparently  the  Cherokees  and  Chickasaws 
on  the  southern  border  had  been  conciliated  for  they 
were  giving  no  trouble. 

The  only  potential  trouble  makers  were  the  Iroquois, 
whose  every  move  was  now  under  observation. 

But  another  King  of  the  Delawares  now  followed  as 
Grand  Sachem,  who  made  an  even  more  fatal  mistake 
than  the  lamented  Pitinumen. 

This  was  Tashiwinso,  the  "Slow  Gatherer,"  whose 
reign  and  deeds  coincide  with  the  making  of  peace 
between  Catholics  and  Protestants  in  France  by  the 
treaty  of  St.  Germaine  and  the  launching  of  the  Holy 
League  against  the  Turks.  In  their  humble  way,  the 
mistakes  of  Tashiwinso,  were  rivals  in  their  ultimate 
effect,  to  the  Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew  in  France, 
that  cost  the  lives  of  50,000  persons  who  died  because 
they  worshipped  God,  the  Great  Spirit,  differently 
from  the  manner  in  which  their  murderers  worshipped 
Him.     (1570  A.D.) 

Tashiwinso  would  have  been  horrified  at  this  com- 
parison, for  he  certainly  did  not  approve  massacre,  in 
fact,  thought  he  was  escaping  the  possibility  of  one  for 
his  own  people  when  he  acted  in  their  behalf  and  at 
their  demand. 

The  Penalty  of  Isolation 

The  demand,  was,  that  the  Great  League  consent  to 
the  separate  establishment  of  the  three  Delaware 
Tribes  as  a  new  Atlantic  Division.  There  had  been  too 
little  attention  paid  to  the  constituents  back  home  by 
the  more  recent  Kings  following  their  elevation  to 
office,  and  if  there  was  to  be  war,  the  Delaware  felt 
quite    competent    to    look    after    their    own    defense, 


especially  with  the  Grand  Sachem  who  must  be  chosen 
from  their  own  number,  safely  kept  at  home! 

And  as  remarkable  as  it  may  seem  to  the  modern 
statesman,  this  is  exactly  what  was  done.  The  new 
Division,  of  three  tribes,  was  set  up  on  the  Delaware, 
and  the  Grand  Sachem  did  stay  at  home  and  abandon 
further  treaties  and  overtures  of  conciliation  save  in  his 
own  immediate  vicinity. 

His  name  of  "Slow  Gatherer"  is  significant  as  in- 
dicating either  dilitory  tactics  or  else  the  fact  that  his 
belated  action  was  too  late  to  save  the  Delaware  from 
a  most  humiliating  defeat  by  the  very  foe  they  feared 
most.  His  successor  is  known  as  the  Man  Who  Fails 
because  he  suffered  this  defeat. 

Slow  Gatherer  succeeded  in  the  ambition  of  his  three 
tribes  to  establish  a  separate  political  organization  as 
so  many  other  offshoots  of  the  parent  stem  had  done, 
the  very  same  year  that  the  great  Iroquois  Chief, 
Hiawatha,  reorganized  the  Five  Nations  into  their 
celebrated  Long  House  federation. 

Then  the  Iroquois  and  the  Delawares  clashed  and 
the  Delaware  Grand  Sachem  failed  to  win  the  victory. 
The  best  the  next  King  could  do  was  to  "frighten"  the 
Iroquois,  (according  to  his  story).  His  name  was,  He 
Is  Friendlv,  and  the  suspicion  is  that  he  was  the  more 
frightened.      (1573  A.D.) 

The  stay  at  home  policy  for  the  Grand  Sachems  had 
cost  the  Delawares  half  their  lands,  with  no  time,  if 
they  had  the  inclination,  to  call  upon  the  allies  to  west 
and  north  for  rescue.  It  is  probable  that  in  this  war, 
the  Delawares  were  driven  east  of  their  river  where  they 
were  hard  put  to  it,  for  a  time,  to  defend  even  that 

The  Walam  Olum  record  comes  to  an  abrupt  close 


after  recording  three  more  Kings,  in  evident  confusion 
as  to  the  nature  of  the  catastrophe  that  had  overcome 
their  League. 

After  the  friendly  one  who  "frightened"  the  Meng- 
wae  and  who  was  elected  King  about  the  time  the  Span- 
ish Armada  was  defeated  by  the  English  navy,  King 
Wangomend,  was  distracted  to  find  that  the  Iroquois 
and  their  kinsmen  of  the  south,  the  Cherokees,  were  a 
good  many  years  underway  with  their  well-known  cam- 
paign to  reconquer  the  Ohio  Valley.     (1600  A.D.) 

The  Cherokees  were  fighting  the  Shawnees  on  the 
Scioto,  according  to  the  first  news  he  had  of  it  outside 
the  Delawares  own  petty  war  with  the  ringleaders  of 
this  plot  to  disturb  the  peace. 

White  Crab,  his  successor,  simply  staid  at  home  and 
so  did  the  last  King  in  the  record,  Watcher.  The 
greatest  event  of  his  reign  was  the  arrival  of  Europeans 
both  north  and  south  among  the  Algonkins  along  the 
coast.  They  were  regarded  as  friendly  beings  with 
wonderful  possessions  and  a  lively  interest  was  shown 
by  the  King  as  to  just  who  they  might  be.  (1607-1617 

Those  to  the  north  were  the  Dutch,  and  did  not 
greatly  interest  the  New  Jersey  people  who  had  become 
accustomed  to  tales  of  the  palefaced  French,  but  the 
settlement  of  Jamestown,  Virginia,  was  an  event  that 
now  caused  the  Algonkins  to  wonder  what  effect  these 
new  and  powerful  whites  might  mean  to  the  great  war 
now  raging  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Wabash. 

Had  the  Delaware  Kings  been  less  pacific,  or  greater 
travellers,  they  would  have  been  greater  statesmen  and 
better  able  to  cope  with  problems  now  entirely  beyond 
their  ability  to  understand. 

Their  separation  from  the  Great  League,  by  which 


they  retained  only  the  courtesy  right  to  furnish  its 
Kings  and  then  keep  them  on  the  Jersey  shore  of  the 
Cheasepeake  Bay,  had  simply  eliminated  them  from 
the  stirring  events  of  the  next  few  generations. 


The  Coming  of  the  Whites 

John  Cabot's  voyage  from  Labrador  to  Florida  in 
1497-8  sets  one  date  for  the  chronology  of  the  Walam 
Olum  history  because  it  is  the  beginning  of  those  arrivals 
of  white  men  "in  the  north"  with  which  the  Algonkins 
were  familiar  for  more  than  a  century  before 
"Watcher"  became  curious  about  the  arrivals  of 
whites  "in  the  south,"  almost  the  limit  of  Algonkin 

The  southern  arrivals  marked  the  beginning  of 
Virginia  settlements  at  Jamestown,  while  the  Dutch 
were  setting  up  Communipaw  and  other  trading  sta- 
tions in  Jersey  and  New  York. 

Two  or  three  years  after  Cabot,  Cortoreal  was  in 
Newfoundland;  French  fishermen  began  to  fish  there 
and  build  their  groups  of  huts  in  1508;  Verizano  sailed 
up  from  Florida  in  1524;  the  Faguendez  expeditions  to 
Nova  Scotia  and  up  the  St.  Lawrence  occurred  in  1521  ; 
about  the  same  time  De  Ayllon  was  exploring  and  loot- 
ing in  Georgia  but  not  in  Algonkin  territory.  Cartier 
was  on  the  St.  Lawrence  in  1534  and  thenceforth 
France  established  herself  in  Canada. 

Unlike  the  Spaniards,  the  French  interested  them- 
selves in  winning  the  friendship  rather  than  the 
supposed  treasure  secrets  of  the  natives.  The  Spaniards 
never  forgot  loot  and  gold.  The  French  found  riches 
in  fur  and  needed  the  Indian  hunters  to  get  it  for  them. 

Hence  the  French  gained  the  "allegiance"  as  they 



deemed  it,  of  the  Algonkin  people,  who  then  held 
Canada  and  the  great  fur  lands  of  the  west.  This  sup- 
posed submission  of  the  natives  to  the  French  King, 
whom  they  called  "father,"  was  looked  upon  by  the 
Algonkin  and  Wendat  Indians  as  an  alliance  between 
nations  however. 

It  was,  in  fact,  no  less  a  thing  from  the  Indian  view- 
point, than  an  offensive  and  defensive  alliance  between 
two  powerful  potentates,  the  King  of  France  and  the 
Grand  Sachem. 

They  were  confirmed  in  this  opinion,  not  only  by 
their  own  customs  and  laws,  but  by  such  incidents  as 
Champlain's  aid  to  them  in  carrying  war  to  the  Iroquois, 
and  the  establishment  of  the  white  brothers  chief  town 
near  their  own  capital  of  the  Hochelaga.  ( See  Appendix 
Note  26). 

This  red-white  alliance  was  taken  very  seriously  by 
all  Algonkin  and  Huron  (Wendat)  nations  and  con- 
tinued so  long  as  France  held  a  foot  of  American 

The  Dutch  Gain  the  Iroquois 

Henry  Hudson,  sailing  up  the  Mohegan  or  Hudson 
River  in  1609,  came  in  contact  with  parties  of  Iroquois 
deadly  enemies  of  all  Algonkins  and  Wendat,  without 
of  course  realizing  what  side  of  the  fight  he  was  wanted 
on.  Fortunately  for  his  Dutch  employers,  he  was  able 
to  report  these  Indians  as  very  peaceably  and  honor- 
ably inclined  and  likely  to  make  good  fur  traders  and 
hunters.     (See  Appendix  Note  27). 

One  party  he  had  aboard  his  Half  Moon,  he  tested 
for  duplicity  by  getting  them  jovially  drunk.  The 
Iroquois  were  for  the  first  time  in  their  lives  introduced 


to  the  white  brothers'  fire  water,  and  their  reactions 
were  quite  satisfactory!  Even  in  their  cups  they  were 
hospitable,  while  their  women  "sat  so  modestly  as  any 
of  our  countrywomen  would  do  in  a  strange  place." 

So  when  three  or  four  years  later,  Dutch  colonists 
found  other  natives  gathered  on  the  Jersey  shore,  who 
fled  in  alarm  and  but  feebly  defended  their  town  of 
Communipaw  which  was  quickly  converted  into  a  white 
man's  town,  the  Iroquois  might  have  been  thought  (by 
the  Dutch)  justified  in  resenting  it  by  war  from  the 
Five  Nations. 

But  those  Jersey  shore  Indians  were  Algonkins ! 
And  the  Dutch  settlements  which  soon  began  to  dot  the 
New  York  landscape,  met  with  a  most  hospitable  and 
eager  reception  from  the  Iroquois.  Here  indeed  were 
also  whites,  with  "wonderful  things"  the  Indians 
wanted  and  as  allies  they  could  be  very  useful  against 
the  hated  Algonkins  and  Hurons. 

So  the  Dutch  had  fast  hold  on  the  "allegiance"  of 
the  Iroquois  and  the  French  on  the  "allegiance"  of  the 
Algonkins  and  Hurons,  before  the  English  arrived  and 
undertook  to  govern  everything. 

English  ships  did  make  some  exploration  of  the  New 
England  Coast  at  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth 
century — but  no  settlements  until  the  Virginia  venture 
of  Captain  John  Smith  and  his  noble  patron,  Sir  Walter 

Jamestown  was  settled  1607,  in  Algonkin  territory, 
where  the  Powhattan  confederacy  was  the  southern- 
most of  a  string  of  petty  kingdoms  extending  up  the 
entire  Atlantic  Coast  into  Maine.  What  the  doughty 
captain  got  of  Indian  hospitality  for  his  Englishmen 
was  obtained  by  virtue  of  his  own  prowess. 

On  more  than  one  occasion  he  was  sarcastically  in- 


formed  that  his  geography  and  insight  into  native 
politics  were  sadly  wanting.  It  was  this  same  Captain 
Smith  who  explored  and  mapped  the  New  England 
coast  where  the  first  northern  English  settlements  were 
made.  This  was  then  being  hotly  contested  between 
Iroquoian  Mohawks  and  the  Algonkins,  whom  they  had 
"greatly  humbled"  a  few  years  before.  (See  Appendix 
Note  28). 

A  force  of  8000  Iroquois  also  destroyed  Hochelega, 
the  Huron  capital  about  the  same  time.  Civil  war  was 
raging  between  two  petty  Algonkin  kingdoms  in  Maine. 
The  long  war  for  the  recovery  of  the  Ohio  Valley  by 
Iroquoians  was  being  directed  from  the  capital  of  the 
Five  Nations  at  Onodaga,  New  York,  and  already 
crumbling  the  enemy  into  small  divisions.  (See  Appen- 
dix Note  29). 

Of  all  this  the  white  man  knew  nothing  and  perhaps 
cared  less. 

Jamestown  nearly  starved  to  death,  recovered, 
bought  Negro  slaves  from  the  Dutch,  wives  from  the 
mother  country,  and  set  about  working  out  its  own 
salvation,  while  the  Hurons  formed  a  federation  of 
their  own  and  plotted  with  their  allies  of  the  Algonkin 
League  how  best  to  resist  the  terrible  warriors  of  the 
Hodenosaune,  Iroquois  League. 

Indians  were  just  Indians  to  the  English. 

These  natives  had  some  useful  ideas.  They  adopted 
them.  Six  white  or  three  purple  beads  they  would 
accept  as  an  Englishman  would  accept  a  penny  in  trade. 
This  was  cheap  and  fine  money — wampum  they  called 

Few  if  any  of  the  Pilgrims  would  have  worried  much 
had  they  known  of  the  sanguinary  war  between  great 
Indian  nations  going  on  to  north,  south  and  west  of 


them.  They  could  protect  themselves  against  all  foes. 
The  Frenchman,  Champlain,  was  being  asked  by  the 
Algonkin-Huron  allies  to  help  them  make  peace  with 
the  Iroquois,  the  same  year  Algonkins  attacked  James- 
town, in  Virginia,  and  killed  347  of  its  people. 

Manhattan  Island  was  turned  over  by  Algonkins  to 
the  Dutch  for  60  gulders  in  1626,  glad  enough  to 
relinquish  so  untenable  a  site  near  the  Iroquois  to  the 
white  allies  of  the  Iroquois.  Uncas  formed  his 
Mohegan  confederacy  this  same  year  with  the  apparent 
purpose  of  attempting  to  revive  the  power  of  the  great 
league  on  the  Atlantic  with  new  white  allies — the 
English.  What  had  the  French  been  able  to  this  far 
south  of  Canada?  A  Delaware  council  was  called  at 
Philadelphia  and  refused  to  join  their  enemy,  the 
Iroquois,  in  an  attack  upon  the  English,  even  though 
the  Iroquois  had  humiliated  them  in  war  and  arrogantly 
demanded  it  of  them. 

But  the  English  were  increasing  in  numbers,  dis- 
trusted even  Uncas  and  soon  alienated  this  movement 
toward  themselves.  Some  2000  Pilgrims  a  year  were 
coming  in.  This  might  alarm  and  incense  the  Dutch, 
but  what  of  it? 

The  Dutch  were  first  to  supply  the  Iroquois  with 
"the  wonderful  things"  the  Red  man  craved  most — 
fire  arms.  Guns  of  the  white  men  soon  settled  the 
supremacy  of  Iroquois  over  Algonkin  and  Huron  in 
the  east. 

Between  the  excitement  of  the  white  man's  fire-water 
and  fire  arms,  the  war  of  many  decades  began  to  have 
sanguinary  consequences  to  the  white  man  himself. 
Maryland's  first  settlers  easily  purchased  an  entire 
Indian  (Algonkin)  village  whose  owners  gave  them  a 


few  lessons  in  native  domestic  arts,  and  left  for  parts 
unknown.     The  village  became  St.  Marys. 

Roger  Williams,  the  Welsh  preacher,  seeking  liberty 
of  conscience  he  could  not  find  among  its  apostles  in 
Massachusetts,  paid  about  $150  for  Providence,  Rhode 
Island,  to  Algonkins.  They  would  have  sold  it  much 
cheaper  doubtless. 

The  English  helped  Uncas  destroy  his  former  tribes- 
man but  had  no  sympathy  with  his  ambitions  for  re- 
stored glory  to  an  Indian  League  allied  with  the  Eng- 
lish, if  they  even  understood  what  it  was  all  about. 
English  courts  were  conducted  as  in  England  and  na- 
tives of  whatever  ungodly  tribe  had  to  beware  how  they 
offended  English  law. 

And  so  Algonkin  sympathies  had  only  France  to  look 
to  for  white  alliance. 

Swedes  came  and  settled  in  Delaware  to  the  outrage 
of  the  Dutch  who  claimed  that  territory  as  they  did 
Connecticut,  now  overflowing  with  Englishmen.  The 
Dutch  conquered  the  Swedes  in  bloodless  battle  and 
made  known  their  demands  that  the  English  should  get 
out  as  trespassers.  Now  both  Dutch,  Algonkins,  Iro- 
quois and  French  disliked  the  English  regardless  of 
how  they  disliked  each  other. 

Surrounded  by  dislikes  they  could  not  understand, 
the  English  thereupon  took  a  lesson  from  the  natives 
and  formed  their  own  league! 

Nezv  Englanders  Copy  Indian  Pattern 

The  L'nited  Colonies  of  New  England  came  into 
being  1643.  Plymouth,  Massachusetts  Bay,  Connecti- 
cut and  New  Haven  colonies  formed  their  own  grand 
council,  with  eight  commissioners  to  look  after  defence 


against  Indians,  and  incidentally  keep  a  watchful  eye 
on  New  Amsterdam.  Rhode  Island  was  barred  from 
the  League.  Roger  Williams  was  too  intimate  with 
the  natives  and  beside  had  queer  ideas.  He  would  have 
to  look  after  himself  and  his  people.' 

This  League  of  the  whites  lasted  40  years. 

During  that  time  the  Dutch  fought  the  Wappengers 
(Algonkin)  while  their  Iroquoian  allies  drove  the 
Ottawas  away  to  Lake  Superior,  destroyed  tribe  after 
tribe  and  were  nearly  finished  with  the  war  by  which 
the  reconquered  the  Ohio  Valley. 

Delaware  passed  from  the  Swedes  to  the  Dutch  and 
the  Dutch  were  taken  over  by  the  English,  whose 
colonies  now  occupied  the  same  Atlantic  coast  line  from 
New  England  to  Florida,  once  occupied  by  the  Algon- 
kin kingdoms,  remnants  of  which  were  being  battered  to 
pieces  in  the  South  by  the  Cherokee  and  in  the  North 
and  Ohio  Valley  by  the  Iroquois. 

Algonkin  people  were  turning  against  each  other  and 
the  English  everywhere,  still  fighting  the  Iroquois. 
Driven  back  to  their  ancient  seat  of  power  on  the  Great 
Lakes  and  in  Canada,  the  French  alone  seemed  to  be 
their  friends.     From  the  French  they  secured  guns.  . 

In  Virginia,  Bacon's  rebellion  cost  its  leader  his  life 
because  he  championed  the  white  settlers  defense 
against  Indians  in  opposition  to  a  royal  governor  who 
had  other  ideas. 

King  Philip's  (Metacomet)  war  against  the  United 
Colonies  left  the  English  as  unmoved  as  had  Uncas' 
war  in  English  (and  his  own)  behalf. 

English  succession  to  Dutch  lands  with  New  Amster- 
dam now  New  York,  gained  no  allegiance  from  either 
Iroquois  or  Algonkin.  Englishmen  pushed  on  into 
good  hunting  and  farmland  claimed  by  both  French 


and  Red  man,  caring  little  about  the  rights  of  the 
matter  or  that  French  explorers,  pioneers  and  mis- 
sionaries were  now  conciliating  and  leaguing  themselves 
with  Mississippi  tribes  from  lakes  to  mouth. 

As  for  the  French,  that  was  a  policy  .  They  knew 
nothing  probably  of  the  racial  enmities  between  north 
and  south.  Friends  where  possible,  with  all  natives, 
was  the  objective. 

The  French  and  Indian  wars  proved  their  wisdom 
but  never  enlightened  the  finally  victorious  English. 
The  year  the  Hurons  made  peace  with  their  Iroquois 
conquerors  (1684)  and  Philadelphia  had  just  been 
founded,  the  United  Colonies  closed  its  career. 

Then  began  the  French  Indian  wars  in  which  the 
English  finally  secured  the  "allegiance"  of  the  Iroquois, 
now  masters  of  the  East.  That  it  was  reluctantly  given, 
or  that  the  alliance  which  finally  replaced  the  Dutch 
gun  and  rum  sources  with  English  gun  and  rum  sources, 
never  seemed  to  dawn  upon  the  English  as  any  reason 
for  uneasiness. 

But  they  did  understand  something  by  this  time,  of 
the  racial  hatreds  between  their  Red  allies  and  the  Red 
allies  of  the  French.  Distrusting  the  Iroquois,  they 
could  still  play  the  French  game  with  these  "allies" 
and  their  incomprehensible  demands  and  claims. 

English  outposts  on  Hudson  Bay  had  been  established 
on  much  the  same  sort  of  claim  the  Indians  seemed  to 
make  to  their  lands — come  and  use  it  and  it's  yours. 
An  English  King  had  royally  confirmed  the  title,  despite 
the  French.  When  a  "war  party"  went  against  the 
Hudson  Bay  fur  camp,  Englishmen  laughed  in  its  face. 
Now  there  was  war. 

The  Delaware  Turtle  Tribe  moved  back  to  the  Ohio 
Valley  the  year  King  William's  War  began.     French 


and  Algonkins  fought  Iroquois  and  English.  It  was  so 
in  Queen  Anne's  War  and  at  last  in  the  French  and 
Indian  War  in  which  Braddock  suffered  disastrous 
defeat.    Yet  the  English  finally  won. 

Powerful  warriors  thought  the  Red  man. 

But  careless  of  all  other  rights  but  his  own. 

And  they  never  were  "friends"  of  the  English! 

Lcnape  Had  Reconquered  Ohio  Valley 

It  was  during  the  last  war  that  the  English  had  one 
faint  qualm  as  to  the  outcome,  yet  they  never  learned 
the  truth — that  their  allies  the  Iroquois  had  been  driven 
out  of  the  Ohio  Valley,  which  had  been  reconquered  by 
the  Great  Algonkin  League,  now  as  powerful  in  its 
Western  Division  as  the  former  Eastern  Division  had 

Had  they  known  this,  their  uneasiness  would  have 
been  greater,  perhaps,  but  they  would  never  have  called 
an  English  Congress  in  New  York,  as  they  did,  to 
debate  whether  their  Iroquoian  allies  might  not  now 
unite  with  the  western  Indians  against  the  colonies ! 

Having  successfully  conquered  Dutch  and  French 
allies  of  the  Red  man,  the  English  became  the  natural, 
because  sole  remaining  white  ally  that  any  Red  people 
could  hope  to  secure  aid  from  against  the  enemy !  The 
Spanish  in  Florida  had  centuries  of  hatred  against  them. 

But  how  were  these  alliances  to  be  maintained  with 
the  same  white  ally,  against  each  other?  It  could  not  be 
done.  The  great  Red  ideal  therefore  became  two-fold 
and  was  to  determine  war  or  peace. 

First — The  Tamanend  ideal  of  the  Delawares,  that 
preferred  peace  and  concilation  of  all  peoples,  though 
not  at  all  averse  to  war  when  other  measures  failed. 


Second — Union  of  all  Indian  Nations  against  the 
white  invasion  of  Indian  rights  in  land.  This  meant 
war  against  all  pioneer  settlements.  There  was  now 
but  one  white  race,  the  English,  to  deal  with. 

Iroquois  Reconquered  Ohio  Valley 

Between  1650  and  1700,  our  historians  say  that  the 
Iroquois  confederacy  reconquered  the  Ohio  Valley. 
Now  and  then  they  "utterly  destroyed"  the  "last  of  the 
Hurons"  although  we  find  these  Wendats  eventually  a 
subject  race  to  their  brother  Iroquoians,  placed  in  con- 
trol of  the  conquered  lands  by  them  and  known  to 
whites  as  Wyandottes !  There  were  known  to  be  some 
Cherokee  in  Ohio,  as  late  as  1710,  indicating  that  these 
Southern  Iroquoians  were  allies  of  the  victor. 

It  is  not  improbable  that  certain  of  the  rebel  Algon- 
kin  tribes,  likewise  aided  the  Iroquois  for  the  "Mas- 
coutins,"  (Ancient  Muscodesh  or  fire  people  of  Michi- 
gan) with  whom  the  Ottawa-Chippewa  of  the  Western 
Division  incessantly  fought,  were  in  southern  Illinois 
while  the  3-Fires  (Ottawa-Chippewa-Pottowatomie) 
and  western  Algonkins  generally  were  clustered  around 
the  ancient  League  headquarters  to  the  north. 

But  times  and  manners  were  changing  for  the  Red 
man,  while  the  great  struggle  between  the  Algonkin 
League  and  the  Iroquoian  League  became  more  and 
more  a  struggle  between  English  and  French. 

Instead  of  the  white  allies  throwing  themselves 
wholeheartedly  into  the  attainment  of  Red  objectives, 
they  were  increasingly  indifferent  to  the  Red  brother, 
acting  as  though  the  Red  man  were  but  a  pawn  in  the 
white  man's  game  of  war!  And  as  the  Reds  began  to 
suspect  this,  the  fury  of  their  leaders  knew  no  bounds. 


For  It  Was  Precisely  This  Same  Attitude  To- 
ward the  Whites  that  the  Various  Indian 
Leagues  Had  from  the  Beginning. 

Alliances  had  been  made  for  guns  and  white  aid 
against  enemies.  The  Red  man  thought  he  was  using 
the  newcomers  for  his  own  purposes  and  paying  him 
well.  The  white  man  supposed  he  was  doing  the  same 
thing  with  the  Indian  whose  tendency  toward 
"treachery"  always  needed  watching. 

With  English  aid,  the  Iroquois  assumed  they  had 
retaken  ancient  Talega  Land  for  their  own  people.  It 
would  have  been  entirely  in  accord  with  Indian  hos- 
pitality, that  English  pioneers  be  allowed  to  settle  and 
hunt  on  this  land,  so  far  as  the  Iroquois  were  concerned. 
There  was  an  Iroquoian  debt  to  be  paid  the  white  allies. 
The  Cherokees  in  the  south  were  more  than  willing  to 
do  so. 

But  the  Colonial  English  never  came  to  understand 
the  niceties  of  Indian  law  and  especially  of  their  laws 
in  respect  to  land  and  international  relations.  They 
soundly  thrashed  the  Tuscaroras  (Iroquoian)  in  North 
Carolina,  who  crept  north  to  the  parent  stock  and  be- 
came the  Sixth  nation  of  the  Iroquois  Confederacy. 
Whatever  the  cause  of  Indian  outbreaks,  these  new 
Americans  were  not  bothering  themselves,  save  as  to 
results  and  dire  punishment  of  the  offenders,  of  what- 
ever nation. 

And  so  there  gradually  arose  in  Indian  minds,  a  fear 
that  all  their  League  wars  were  now  being  fought  in 
vain — that  the  whites  were  more  powerful  and  would 
not  respect  the  victors  more  than  the  conquered. 

And  so  the  teachings  of  Tamanend  were  in  the 
ascendant  for  a  time. 

In  the  first  half  of  the  eighteenth  century  for  example, 


the  Cowetas,  ancient  Muskoki  foes  of  the  Lenape, 
were  on  friendly  terms  with  the  Delawares,  descendants 
of  those  Lenape.  Algonkin  Shawnees  came  from  south 
and  west  into  Pennsylvania  and  so  did  Cherokee  and 
they  were  not  all  engaged  in  fighting  each  other  either. 
These  same  Shawnees  had  been  back  on  the  Scioto, 
ancient  battle  ground  of  the  Leagues  and  east  of  the 
Muskingdom  to  below  the  Eries  on  the  Allegheney. 

Lenape  Retake   Ohio  Valley 

The  general  position  of  Algonkins  and  Iroquois  and 
Hurons  indicates  that  after  170(1  the  former,  rather 
than  the  latter,  were  masters  in  the  Upper  Ohio !  When 
the  French  warned  the  English  from  the  Ohio  Valley  in 
their  last  war  it  was  held  by  their  Algonkin  allies. 
Prisoners  captured  at  Braddock's  defeat  were  taken  by 
the  Shawnees  back  to  their  stronghold  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Scioto. 

This  time  it  was  for  the  Iroquoians  to  be  selling  lands 
and  letting  the  white  allies  build  forts  and  make  settle- 
ments. The  Cherokee  were  among  the  most  accommo- 
dating and  civilized  in  the  land.  Observers  reported 
Cherokees  and  "Mingoes"  (Mengwae  or  Iroquois)  as 
well  as  Shawnees  and  Delawares,  seemed  to  be  the  two 
popular  "alliances"  of  the  day  after  Braddock's  defeat ! 

These  respective  alliances  (Iroquoian  with  Iroquoian 
and  Algonkin  with  Algonkin)  must  have  grinned  over 
the  pale-face  discovery,  had  they  known  of  it.  But 
what  was  of  importance  was  the  friendship  between 
Delaware  and  Coweta,  ally  of  the  Iroquois  as  attested 
by  the  explorer,  Long,  even  before  this. 

The  English  were  now  beginning  to  make  treaties, 
doing  the  best  they  knew  how,  to  bind  the  savage  enemy 


by  ties  of  white  men's  devising,  humoring  some  of  their 
pretentions  and  vaporings,  but  on  the  whole  well  satis- 
fied that  once  the  majesty  of  the  British  law  was 
acknowledged  and  signed  on  the  dotted  line,  even  with 
a  totem  mark,  it  would  not  be  violated  with  impunity. 

Who  "Owned"  the  Land? 

Knowing  nothing  of  the  white  man's  queer  ideas  that 
land  once  alienated,  was  vested  in  the  grantees  heirs 
and  assigns  forever,  the  Red  men  listened  to  talks,  made 
some  himself  and  then  signed.  From  his  viewpoint,  he 
gave  up,  not  titles  to  real  estate,  but  natural  rights  to 
hunt,  fish  or  farm  in  certain  regions.  The  earth,  as  all 
men  knew,  was  made  by  and  therefore  belonged  to  the 
Great  Spirit.  Who  could  sell  old  Nakomis,  his  grand- 

However,  the  English  were  satisfied.  They  had  the 
signatures  of  the  most  likely  Indian  rebels  on  the  Ft. 
Johnson  treaty  of  1757,  which  closed  the  incident  as  to 
the  natives.  Let  the  Indian  complain  "he  did  not  under- 
stand" as  much  as  he  liked  thereafter — he  was  bound 
by  the  law,  the  English  law. 

Less  than  ten  years  thereafter,  Pontiac's  War  should 
have  enlightened  them.  Pontiac's  white  allies,  the 
French,  had  gone  down  in  defeat,  but  Pontiac,  King  of 
the  ancient  Algonkin  League,  was  still  a  king.  When 
Captain  Rogers  passed  through  this  kingdom  to  take 
over  one  of  the  French  forts,  his  personal  bravery  alone 
saved  him.  He  was  warned  to  tell  his  countrymen,  all 
this  Ohio  Valley  belonged  to  the  people  over  whom 
Pontiac  ruled. 

To  avert  war,  a  British  proclamation  that  settlers 
were   forbidden   to  settle-   "Indian  Lands"  caused  the 


natives  to  abandon  the  war  at  the  peak  of  its  success. 
Yet  had  the  hardy  pioneers  understood  the  consequences 
of  violating  what  the  Great  League  of  the  Red  men 
considered  more  sacred  law  than  the  British  proclama- 
tion, it  is  doubtful  if  they  would  have  paused  in  their 
westward  march.  By  this  time  there  was  the  most 
thorough  going  hatred  between  the  races. 

All  Red  men  were  "varmints"  and  to  be  slain  with- 
out mercy  upon  the  slightest  or  even  fancied  provoca- 
tion, as  they  slew  the  whites. 

At  the  Fort  Stanwix  Treaty  of  1768,  in  consequence 
of  British  unfamiliarity,  not  to  say  ignorance,  respect- 
ing the  Indian  claims  to  land,  there  must  have  been  many 
a  grim  smile  indulged  in  by  Iroquoian  and  Algonkin,  as 
they  set  forth  their  claims  to  rights  they  were  either 
selling  or  surrendering — it  was  all  the  same  to  the  Red 
man.    The  victor  could  name  his  own  terms  ! 

So  the  Shawnees  and  Delawares  were  set  down  as 
"dependents"  upon  the  Iroquois — rather  ancient  his- 
tory, which  had  been  revised  of  late  years.  However, 
the  Cherokees  (Iroquoian)  cheerfully  "acknowledged" 
the  claim.  This  strange  paleface  conqueror,  seemed 
intent  on  reconquering  the  Ohio  Valley  once  more  from 
the  Algonkin,  for  his  ally  the  Iroquois  confederacy. 
Pontiac  was  dead.  Why  attempt  to  teach  Algonkin 
history  to  a  white  man? 

From  position  of  actual  defeat,  the  Iroquois  regained 
on  paper,  all  they  had  lost.  They  were  lords  of  the 
Ohio  Valley,  (on  paper)  and  of  the  South  Ohio  country 
west  to  the  Big  River  or  Tennessee,  with  rule  acknowl- 
edged by  the  whites  at  least,  over  the  Potomac  tribes  of 
Algonkins  as  well  as  those  in  the  Ohio  Valley. 

The  American  revolution  at  first  was  merely  a  quarrel 
between  the  13-Fires  and  their  own  King  to  the  Indian. 


By  treaty  he  was  bound  to  the  British  King  because  the 
British  had  conquered  them.  This  was  no  "alliance" 
between  the  Red  man  and  a  powerful  white  King  who 
could  be  useful  against  one's  enemies. 

The  British  paid  for  the  scalps  they  demanded  and 
got.  The  conqueror  used  the  conquered  according  to 
the  savage  custom  which  was  easily  understood.  The 
Algonkins  were  "loyal"  to  the  British  King  because  they 
considered  him  strongest  and  the  American  rebels  who 
were  moreover  bitter  enemies  were  already  occupying 
Indian  hunting  grounds. 

The  Red  League  deemed  it  better  policy  to  play  the 
Red  Coat  war  game — all  save  the  Delawares. 

They  alone  maintained  the  Tamanend  tradition  now. 

The  Tamanend  Policy  Helps  Americans 

Their  Grand  Sachem,  Koguethagechton  or  as  the 
Americans  called  him  "White-Eyes"  resisted  all  British 
efforts  to  enlist  the  Delawares  in  the  war,  though  they 
succeeded  in  dividing  the  nation.  The  American  Con- 
gress interviewed  him  and  the  Sachem  travelled  west 
among  his  people  counselling  neutrality.  "White  Eyes" 
was  head  of  the  Turtle  Tribe  and  therefore  titular 
King  of  the  ancient  League.  His  chief  opponent  of  tht 
Wolf  tribe  of  Delawares,  dared  not  attempt  the  life 
of  the  Grand  Sachem. 

Thus  the  Tamanend  peace  ideal  was  instrumental 
in  aiding  the  Americans  in  their  struggle  for  freedom, 
at  a  time  they  needed  it  most.  They  were  hated  and 
feared  by  all  Indians,  even  the  Delawares,  because  they 
were  violators  of  the  sacred  laws  handed  down  to  the 
Red  man  with  regard  to  land.  By  this  violation,  they 
were  depriving  Indians  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter. 
Only  certain   missionaries,   such   as   the   Quakers   and 


Moravians,  were  making  any  attempt  to  give  the  Red 
men  knowledge  of  what  to  do  when  the  game  was  all 

It  was  General  George  Rogers  Clark  however,  who 
opened  up  the  Northwest  for  the  Americans,  and  first 
won  the  admiration  if  not  the  confidence  of  the  Indians. 
When  they  saw  him  accepted  by  the  French,  (old-time 
Algonkin  allies)  and  then  capture  a  British  fort,  they 
began  to  understand  that  this  was  more  than  a  war  of 
rebels  against  their  King.    ( See  Appendix  Note  31). 

This  was  the  13-Fires  fighting  for  the  ideals  of 
Tamanend,  or  as  the  white  brother  expressed  it,  for 
life,  liberty,  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness! 

Clark  made  his  headquarters  in  Kentucky  and  it  is  a 
singular  fact  that  he  and  his  fellow  Kentuckians  began 
to  learn  from  the  Indians,  more  of  their  history,  cus- 
toms, laws  and  reasons  for  warring  against  the  whites, 
than  any  other  group  before  them. 

These  new  American  warriors,  might  be  merely 
ignorant  after  all,  but  they  were  not  hypocrites.  They 
were  not  so  liable  to  trick  the  Reds  as  the  English  they 
fought,  for  they  did  not  have  forked  tongues.  Mis- 
understand they  might,  but  they  gave  frank  choice  be- 
tween war  and  peace,  between  force  and  the  Tamanend 
ideal.  If  it  was  war,  they  but  exercised  the  victors' 

Beginning  of  Our  Indian  Program 

The  Americans  began  their  Indian  policy  with  a 
series  of  treaties:  Iroquois  at  Ft.  Stanwix,  1784;  Dela- 
ware, Ottawa,  Chippewa  and  Wyandotte  at  Ft.  Mc- 
intosh, 1785.  These  promptly  established  relations 
with  the  two  great  Leagues  whose  ancient  rivalries  and 


wars  were  not  allowed  to  color  their  claims  to  first  con- 

As  the  fur  trader,  Mackenzie,  wistfully  told  his 
fellow  Britons,  they  would  have  been  wiser  from  the 
start  to  treat  with  native  races  as  their  conquerors. 
That  was  one  thing  the  Indian  could  understand  of 
white  man's  law. 

Next,  the  Cherokees  were  recognized  as  a  separate 
nation  in  the  Hopewell  Treaty  of  same  year,  dealing 
with  them,  the  Choctaw  and  Chickasaw  at  the  same 
time.  Knowingly  or  not,  the  Americans  were  fortunate 
in  linking  the  ancient  Talega  and  Coweta,  allies  against 
the  Lenape,  and  therefore  to  be  counted  with  the 
Iroquoian  forces. 

Next  year,  1786,  the  Treaty  of  Great  Miami  was 
made  with  the  Shawnee,  whose  roving  yet  puzzles  many 
as  to  which  side  they  should  be  counted  on  at  any  given 
time.  They  of  course  were  and  always  will  be  Algon- 
kins,  i.e.  Lenape. 

The  Treaty  of  Ft.  Harmer,  1789,  must  have  seemed 
to  the  Indians,  an  effort  to  force  peace  between  their 
ancient  leagues.  This  treaty  dealt  with  the  Iroquois 
in  one  group  and  the  Wyandottes  (ancient  Talamatans) 
Delawares,  Ottawas,  Chippewas,  Pottawotomies  and 
Sauks  in  another. 

At  this  time  it  was  understood  the  Shawnees, 
Cherokees  and  Creeks  or  Muskoki  confederacy,  whose 
chief  wartown  was  Coweta,  were  all  in  friendly  relation 
with  each  other. 

The  American  treaty  making  after  this  mixed  council, 
came  to  an  abrupt,  though  brief  halt,  because  of  war 
with  the  Miami  Confederacy,  which  was  nothing  less 
than  an  uprising  of  the  Great  League  again. 


Miami  Confederacy  Was  Lenape  League 
In  this  confederacy,  our  histories  count  the 

Wyandots  (Wendats,  Hurons  or  ancient  Talamatans). 
Delawares  (Heads  of  the  Eastern  Division). 
Ottawa-Chippewa-Potawatomie    (Three-Fires) . 
Miami  and  Shawnees. 

The  3-Fires,  Miamis  were  of  the  Western  division 
and  the  Shawnees  of  the  Eastern,  in  the  ancient  League. 
It  was  three  years  before  this  uprising  was  put  down. 

In  the  meantime  the  Cherokee  were  guaranteed  all 
lands  they  had  not  already  ceded  to  the  United  States 
or  the  several  states,  by  the  Holston  Treaty  of  1791, 
which  they  subsequently  confirmed  at  Philadelphia  in 

Leader  of  the  new  League  uprising  was  Michikiniqua 
or  Little  Turtle,  a  worthy  successor  to  Pontiac.  He 
defeated  two  armies  sent  against  him  but  was  defeated 
by  a  third,  under  command  of  General  Anthony  Wayne, 
"The  Black  Snake,"  respected  by  all  Red  Warriors. 
(See  Appendix  Note  32). 

Chickasaw  and  Choctaw  scouts  from  the  south  acted 
with  the  Americans.  Their  friendship  with  the  Dela- 
wares as  well  as  their  ancient  feud  with  the  Algonkin 
league,  made  them  more  amenable  to  the  Tamanend 
ideal  than  to  the  war  against  the  whites. 

After  the  war,  this  modern  King  of  the  Algonkin 
League  was  one  day  asked  why  he  did  not  live  in 
Philadelphia,  which  it  will  be  recalled  is  the  City  of 
Brotherly  Love,  founded  by  the  Elder  Brother  (Penn) 
of  Tamanend  III,  near  that  Tamanend's  royal  seat. 

The  Grand  Sachem's  reply  was: 



"I  admit  that  you  whites  live  better  than  do  we 
Red  men,  but  I  could  not  live  with  you  because  I  am 
as  a  deaf  and  dumb  man.  I  cannot  talk  your  language. 
When  I  walk  through  the  city  streets  I  see  every 
person  in  his  shop  employed  at  something.  One 
makes  shoes,  another  makes  hats,  a  third  sells  cloth 
and  every  one  lives  by  his  labor.  I  say  to  myself, 
which  of  these  things  can  I  do?  Not  one.  I  can  make 
a  bow,  or  an  arrow,  catch  fish,  kill  game,  go  to  war, 
but  none  of  these  are  any  good  here.  To  learn  what 
is  done  in  Philadelphia  would  require  a  long  time." 

This  King  spoke  the  sentiments  of  his  people  many 
of  whom  today  are  honored  citizens  of  the  United 
States,  eminent  in  various  professions  and  trades.  But 
the  Red  man  had  so  long  been  regarded  as  an  ignorant, 
lazy  and  ferocious  savage,  his  words  made  little  im- 
pression at  the  time. 

As  to  the  Indians'  view  of  real  estate  ownership,  a 
Chippewa  chieftain  explained  it  rather  more  fully  than 
usual  with  his  people  when  talking  to  a  white  man.  To 
General  Wayne's  inquiry,  he  answered: 

"Elder  Brother,  you  ask  me  who  were  the  true 
owners  of  the  land  now  ceded  to  the  United  States. 

"In  answer  I  tell  you  if  any  nations  should  call 
themselves  the  owners  of  it  they  would  be  guilty  of 
falsehood;  our  claim  to  it  is  equal.  Our  Elder 
Brother  has  conquered  it." 

And  yet,  knowing  nothing  of  the  laws  handed  down 
to  the  Indian  nations  by  the  Great  Spirit,  how  easily 
interpreted  was  that  answer,  to  mean  that  no  Indian 
nations  really  ever  owned  it  and  the  whites  were  the 


first  to  do  so,  by  conquering  the  Indians!     The  Great 
Spirit  alone  owned  it  was  the  true  meaning. 

King   Tecumseh   Tries  Again 

One  of  the  warriors  in  this  war,  with  the  Miami 
Confederacy,  later  to  become  King  and  lead  another 
League  war  against  the  whites,  in  which  he  was  slain, 
was  Tecumseh.  For  many  years  he  and  his  brother, 
The  Prophet,  labored  to  weld  all  the  Indians  of  North 
and  South  together  under  his  leadership.  Tecumseh 
won  the  Muskoki  sympathies  no  less  than  the  Algon- 
kins.      (See  Appendix  Note  41). 

When  asked  why  he  attempted  this  great  reorganiza- 
tion, he  answered  that  he  did  so  for  the  same  reason 
the  whites  had  brought  about  a  union  of  their  colonies. 

"We  Indians  Have  Never  Objected  to  That 
— We  Are  in  Our  Own  Land  Which  Has  Been 
Left  to  Us  by  the  Great  Spirit." 

Seemingly  Tecumseh  was  forced  into  war  before  com- 
pletely finishing  his  work  of  preparation.  But  he  had 
with  him  this  time  as  allies,  those  ancient  foes  of  his 
league,  some  of  the  Allegewi,  now  called  Winnebagoes 
— Siouan  peoples. 

He  was  frank  enough  with  the  Americans,  offering 
to  be  their  ally  in  the  coming  war  with  England  if  they 
would  acknowledge  the  rights  in  land  he  claimed  for  his 
people.  Else,  he  told  them,  he  would  side  with  the 
British  in  Canada  who  had  already  sought  an  alliance. 

In  the  south,  Alabama  and  Tennessee,  the  Creek 
Confederacy  maintained  the  war  long  after  the  King  in 
the  North  had  fallen.    Their  leader  was  known  to  the 


whites  as  Weatherford  and  his  opponent  and  conqueror 
was  Andrew  Jackson,  later  President  of  the  United 

Having  won  their  second  war  with  England,  the 
Americans  now  were  able  to  deal  with  the  Indians  by 
treaty  under  which  he  was  supposed  to  sell  the  land  the 
Great  Spirit  owned  and  he  enjoyed  the  fruits  thereof- — 
or  conquer  him  in  war  and  treat  him  accordingly. 

Naturally  the  whites  preferred  buying  the  land, 
under  the  same  impression  their  ancestors  had,  that  the 
Indians  understood  very  well  what  ownership  by  deed 
of  transfer  (a  treaty)  meant. 

Black  Hawk's  War 

In  1830  certain  Sauk  and  Fox  tribes  (Algonkins) 
"sold"  their  lands  and  agreed  to  move  west  of  the 
Mississippi,  without  consulting  their  chief,  Black  Hawk. 
They  were  involved  in  war  by  Black  Hawk  insisting 
on  the  Indians'  rights  as  in  all  other  cases.  In  this  war 
the  Siouan  Winnebagoes  were  allies  of  the  Sauk  and 
Fox  federation. 

But  the  western  Sioux  or  Dakotas  were  not  involved, 
nor  was  the  Great  Algonkin  League.  For  the  Sauk  and 
Fox  people  were  of  those  original  Algonkins  living  in 
Michigan  when  the  Great  League  was  formed  and  they 
were  seemingly  always  rebels  against  its  authority.  The 
Iroquois  were  also  their  enemies  and  the  ancient  western 
Sioux  as  well.  These  American  Ishmaelities  probably 
learned  of  the  white  man's  numbers  and  powers  for  the 
first  time  under  Black  Hawk.  Abraham  Lincoln  fought 
against  him,  as  a  young  man. 

After  his   defeat,   Black   Hawk  was   shown  white 


civilization  and  no  longer  wondered  that  his  own  power 
was  unable  to  cope  with  it. 

"Treachery"  in  Florida 

Quickly  following  the  Black  Hawk  war,  the  Creeks 
of  Florida  under  Osceola  fought  valiantly  for  their 
lands,  despite  the  reasoning  of  General  Thompson,  that 
as  white  settlers  were  all  around  them  and  the  game 
disappearing,  they  had  better  keep  to  their  signed  agree- 
ment ceding  their  lands.  In  this  war  it  must  be  ad- 
mitted the  Americans  were  equally  as  "treacherous"  as 
their  foe.  Osceola  was  tricked,  captured  and  died  a 
prisoner.  But  the  Seminoles  are  still  in  the  Everglades 
of  Florida — those  that  have  absorbed  some  of  the  ways 
of  white  men. 

In  the  first  half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  United 
States  had  succeeded  in  quelling  or  pacifying  virtually 
all  Indians  resident  east  of  the  Mississippi.  Most  of 
them  were  moved  to  reservations  west  of  the  Missis- 
sippi. The  more  civilized  or  pacified,  still  remain  on 
reservations  in  the  various  states.  There  are  still 
Cherokees  in  the  southern  mountains  and  Iroquois  in 
New  York. 

The  east  had  become  too  thickly  settled  for  the  Red 
man  to  retain  any  interest  in  the  land.  The  west  was 
still  filled  with  game.  But  it  too  was  being  constantly 
settled  by  men  who  built  cities  and  brought  the  white 
man's  inexorable  law. 

Perhaps  not  one  tribe  in  the  entire  west  but  was  now 
fully  determined  to  kill  all  white  men  in  order  to  save 
their  hunting  grounds,  given  them  by  the  Great  Spirit. 
They  objected  to  white  hunters  chiefly  because  they 


killed  more  game  than  they  could  eat.    The  Indian  was 
never  a  "sportsman." 

Why  South  Organized  Indians 

During  the  Civil  War  the  South  endeavored  to  keep 
these  Southern  Indians  neutral  or  else  use  them  as 
regular  soldiers,  deeming  it  dangerous  to  the  white  race 
generally  to  leave  them  free  to  choose  sides  and  set 
whites  to  achieve  the  purposes  of  the  Reds!  General 
Albert  Pike,  who  achieved  this  end,  knew  more  of 
Indian  character  than  perhaps  any  white  man  save 
William  Penn. 

Soon  after  the  Civil  war,  which  the  Indians  of  the 
west  doubtless  regarded  as  some  relief  to  themselves, 
the  Cheyennes  rose  under  their  Chief  Roman  Nose. 
They  were  Algonkins,  and  descendants  of  those  Lenape 
who  fought  the  Great  Snake  War  westward  and  south- 
ward. They  remembered  the  time  they  were  an  agri- 
cultural people  and  lived  on  the  Missouri  and  far  in  the 
west,  much  as  the  Walum  Olum  relates. 

At  Fort  Ellsworth,  Kansas,  1866,  while  settlers  were 
pouring  westward  and  railroad  lines  were  being  laid 
through  his  hunting  grounds,  Roman  Nose  threatened 
war  if  they  came  further.  He  made  good  the  threat 
and  was  killed  in  battle. 

Further  South  and  west  the  Apache  Geronimo  became 
a  scourge.  He  was  captured,  imprisoned  and  died  in 
peace  1909. 

The  Dakotahs,  ancient  Nadowe-is-iw  also  resisted 
stoutly  under  Red  Cloud,  forced  a  treaty  they  construed 
as  victory  because  a  fort  was  abandoned,  but  were  finally 
defeated  and  Red  Cloud  allowed  to  die  in  peace  at  the 
age  of  90. 


The  last  serious  war  with  Indians  resulted  in  the 
Custer  Massacre  and  bitter  war  with  a  line  of  Sioux 
chieftains  who  were  finally  thoroughly  subdued.  The 
west  had  been  conquered,  its  game  exterminated  and  the 
Red  man  left  only  with  the  choice  of  education  or  living 
on  a  reservation  under  white  man's  bounty. 

But  the  Americans  no  longer  killed  Indian  "rebels" 
save  in  battle.  Even  Sitting  Bull,  most  dangerous  of 
the  Sioux,  lived  to  join  a  Wild  West  show  and  die  while 
resisting  arrest  by  an  Indian  policeman! 

Indians   Only   Understood  Conquerors 

As  conquerors,  the  Indian  could  understand  the 
American.  The  issues  of  battle  decide  one's  fate  and 
the  magnanimity  of  the  victor  tells  the  defeated  warrior 
what  kind  of  man  has  conquered  him.  The  victors' 
Spirit  (Manito)  was  the  stronger — that  was  all. 

But  it  is  doubtful  that  any  "old-time"  Indian  can 
ever  really  agree  with  the  white  brothers'  viewpoint  on 
real  estate. 

To  be  killed,  or  even  tortured  may  be  the  fate  of  a 
warrior  who  loses. 

But  to  deprive  him  of  food,  clothing  and  shelter 
guaranteed  by  the  Great  Spirit  to  all  his  children,  is  a 
torture  and  a  punishment  of  which  the  Indian  knows 
nothing.  If  an  enemy  is  allowed  to  live,  he  must  be  fed. 
He  may  even  be  adopted  into  the  tribe. 

So,  from  the  Red  point  of  view,  the  white  man  owes 
every  Indian  living  on  a  reservation,  food,  clothing  and 
shelter.  It  is  the  white  man's  debt  by  the  law  of  the 
Great  Spirit,  whose  place  the  white  man  has  endeavored 
to  usurp  with  respect  to  land.  The  Indian  is  no  beggar. 
Indeed  he  is  rather  miserable  in  such  a  situation.     But 


the  land  and  game  are  taken  away  from  him,  gone  for- 
ever.    It  is  the  white  man's  debt,  not  his. 

Yet  this  strange  American,  without  understanding 
the  Great  Spirit  apparently,  and  knowing  little  if  any- 
thing of  the  mysteries  of  the  Priest  House,  is  teaching 
the  younger  generation  other  ways  of  obtaining  the 
necessaries  of  life  than  the  old  ways  now  gone. 

Citizenship  Like  Ancient  "Adoption" 

He  has  his  own  rites  of  adoption  into  the  48-Fires. 
This  younger  generation  seems  to  think  the  white  man 
owes  them  no  debt  of  the  Great  Spirit  once  they  are 
adopted  and  initiated  by  the  white  man.  The  old  war- 
riors are  dying  out.  The  young  ones  are  becoming 
American  citizens  when  they  will.  The  native  ways  are 
giving  place  to  agriculture,  trade. 

It  is  a  long  string  of  centuries  backward  to  the  ancient 
life  of  the  Stone  Age.  That  is  gone.  This  is  an  age  of 
metal  for  the  Indian  as  well  as  the  white  man.  But  the 
Stone  Age  mind  and  tradition  remain  with  most  of  them. 

Only  the  younger  generation  know  and  prove  that 
Stone  Age  inheritance  is  mentally  no  weaker  than  that 
of  the  Iron  and  Steel  Age  in  which  it  finds  itself. 

Those  who  revere  the  ancient  traditions  and  sagas 
of  past  glory,  see  with  surprise,  that  the  white  brother 
has  absorbed  something  of  that  Great  Spirit  who  rules 
this  "Island,"  even  though  they  know  it  not.  It  makes 
them  closer  akin  to  the  Red  Man  than  the  two  have  ever 
been  before. 

To  the  Algonkin,  the  ideals  of  Tamanend  may  live 
again  in  his  own  nation,  once  he  understands  the  white 
man's  point  of  view.  His  ancient  League  has  now  been 
enlarged  to  cover  the  entire  "Back  of  the  Turtle." 


The  Great  Spirit  has  given  a  new  set  of  laws  suitable 
to  the  changed  conditions  made  by  the  whites.  //  the 
white  man  will  now  obey  those  laws,  no  one  will  starve, 
go  naked  or  be  without  a  wigwam. 

It  is  too  late  for  the  elders  who  remain  on  reserva- 
tions to  once  more  consider  themselves  members  of  the 
Great  League.  But  their  children  and  grandchildren 
may  do  so. 


Religion  and  Laws  of  the  Red  Man 

Redpath,  the  great  historian,  expressed  the  opinion 
that  the  Indian  was  unsocial,  solitary,  gloomy,  an 
opinion  some  modern  wit  agreed  with  by  suggesting 
that  the  reason  the  noble  Red  man  was  so  silent  was 
that  he  knew  nothing  to  say. 

Among  other  conclusions  of  the  historian,  drawn 
from  pioneer  tales  of  the  Indian,  were  these. 

The  idea  of  civil  authority  which  should  curb  his 
passions  and  will  and  thwart  his  purpose,  was  intoler- 
able to  any  Indian. 

He  had  a  passion  for  war;  his  military  strategy  was 
limited  to  surprise  and  "treachery." 

No  general  Indian  Congress  was  known.  Con- 
federations of  tribes  were  temporary,  based  on  ties  of 
kinship  or  the  exegencies  of  war. 

In  matters  of  religion  the  Indian  was  "superstitious," 
though  seldom  an  idolator.  He  worshipped  and  sacri- 
ficed to  the  Great  Spirit  who  was  everywhere  present, 
ruling  the  elements.  But  this  was  not  in  temples.  The 
"Medicine  Man"  was  merely  a  self-constituted  phy- 
sician and  prophet.      (See  Appendix  Note  39). 

Fortunately  the  researches  of  modern  ethnology  and 
archaeology  have  succeeded  in  modifying  some  of  these 
conclusions  or  at  least  casting  doubt  upon  their  correct- 

After  two  centuries  of  conflict  between  the  Stone  Age 
and  Modern   Civilization,   it  would  have  been  more 



remarkable  had  Redpath  been  able  to  draw  any  other 
conclusions  than  he  did  from  the  Indians  themselves, 
not  to  mention  the  tales  of  the  colonists  who  regarded 
them  all  as  potential  murderers. 

The  Holy  House  Was  Universal 

But  the  Indians  did  have  an  authority  to  curb  their 
passions  both  in  peace  and  war,  and  forms  of  govern- 
ment based  upon  that  authority,  of  which  few  Euro- 
peans or  their  successors,  the  Americans,  suspected  even 
the  existence,  although  it  was  constantly  before  their 

This  was  his  religion,  philosophy  and  science  taught 
in  secret  societies  universally  distributed  and  variously 
named,  but  essentially  identical  in  principle.  (See  Ap- 
pendix Note  34). 

Among  the  Lenape,  as  among  all  Algonkin  peoples, 
this  society  was  known  as  the  Mide-Wiwan  or  Priests 

Their  great  hereditary  foes,  the  Sioux,  called  it  the 
Wakon-Kitchewa.     (See  Appendix  Note  35). 

The  Mide  were  both  priests,  warriors  and  healers. 
They  were  the  leaders  of  their  clans.  The  respect  in 
which  they  were  held  made  every  young  warrior  am- 
bitious to  become  a  Mide,  as  this  increased  his  social, 
political  and  religious  standing  in  every  way. 

Early  pioneers  knew  of  this  organization,  though  no 
white  man  was  ever  admitted  and  it  is  upon  the  informa- 
tion grudgingly  furnished  by  its  native  members, 
coupled  with  the  known  customs  of  the  various  tribes, 
we  must  depend  for  what  knowledge  we  possess  of  it. 
The  pioneers  called  it  "The  Great  Medicine  Society" 
and  referred  to  the  Mides  as  "Medicine  Men,"  because 


one  of  the  things  obviously  taught  the  initiated,  was  the 
art  of  healing  with  herbs  and  appeals  to  the  manitos  or 
spirits;  a  sort  of  combination  medical  and  mental  heal- 
ing school,  of  which  the  whites  ought  to  know  a  good 
deal !    They  have  enough  healing  schools  of  their  own. 

But  more  than  healing  was  taught. 

Every  lodge  was  dedicated  to  The  Great  Spirit  and 
from  this  Great  Spirit  flowed  all  good  things,  knowledge 
of  herbs  and  incantations  being  merely  one  of  them. 

Nor  was  the  conception  of  this  Great  Spirit  by  the 
Red  man,  easily  understandable  to  the  pioneer  settlers, 
nominally  at  least  given  to  Christian  interpretations 
that  demanded  concrete  ideas  about  God  as  a  person. 

The  Great  Spirit  was  the  Master  of  Life,  every- 
where, in  everything,  invisible,  eternal,  responsible  for 
causing  all  life  and  all  visible  and  invisible  things,  ruling 
over  all  Nature. 

The  first  chapter  of  the  Walam  Olum  describes  the 
Lenape  conception  of  this  Great  Spirit.  And  this  was 
the  conception  of  all  other  holy  mysteries  over  the 

The  Master  of  Life  created  everything.  Sometimes 
he  was  called  the  Breath  Master,  because  all  power 
came  from  him  and  the  objective  of  every  individual 
was  to  increase  this  power  within  himself  so  that  he  or 
she  might  become  superior  in  it. 

Not  only  human  beings,  but  rocks,  animals,  birds, 
flowers  and  trees  had  some  of  this  manito  of  the  Great 
Manito  or  Kitchemanito,  in  it.  Without  it  they  could 
not  live.  The  state  of  health  and  well  being  both  in 
peace  and  war,  depended  upon  one's  manito  and  how 
strong  that  was  to  cope  with  other  adverse  manitos. 

This  Manito  or  spirit  power  was  called 


Orenda,  by  the  Iroquois, 

Wakonda,  by  the  Sioux, 

Oki,  by  the  Wendats  or  "Hurons," 

Inua,  by  the  Eskimos, 

Katcina,  by  the  Hopi, 

Nana  Ishtohoollo,  by  the  Chickasaw. 

The  physical  body  might  be  crippled  or  destroyed 
entirely  when  the  spirit  within  was  weak,  but  that  did 
not  affect  the  man.  Those  who  died,  simply  went  on  a 
long  journey  to  rejoin  the  spirits  of  those  who  had  gone 
before — usually  to  the  west,  where  were  supposed  to  be 
the  happy  hunting  grounds  and  the  land  of  spiritis 
from  which  all  men  originally  came.  (See  Appendix 
Note  36). 

Within  the  Midewiwan  or  the  Wakon-Kitchewa,  the 
initiators  performed  a  peculiar  ceremony  of  "shooting" 
this  spirit  power  into  the  candidate  from  the  mouth  of 
a  medicine  bag,  whereupon  he  must  pretend  to  fall 
senseless,  as  though  dead  and  then  be  brought  to  life, 
filled  with  the  holy  spirit. 

Apparently  this  custom  of  "shooting"  wakonda  or 
manito  or  orenda  as  the  case  may  be,  was  not  necessarily 
confined  to  the  house  of  initiation,  but  was  good  for  the 
entire  tribe,  men  and  women.  It  was  merely  one  of  the 
sacred  ceremonies  within  the  lodge. 

Johnathan  Carver,  the  explorer  saw  what  he  calls  a 
"powwow"  dance  in  which  this  "shooting"  was  per- 
formed for  the  benefit  of  one  and  all,  men  and  women. 
This  was  among  the  Sioux.  The  idea  was  to  increase  the 
power  of  all  the  people.  The  pattern  of  the  idea  was 
taken  from  the  sacred  mysteries. 

The  Algonkin  legends  indicate  that  the  Midewiwan 
was  established  among  them  on  the  Atlantic  Coast  be- 


fore  their  great  flood.  It  was  given  them  from  the 
Great  Spirit,  through  the  Dzhemanito  or  Good  Spirit, 
first  to  their  culture  hero,  Nanaboush,  because  he  had 
fought  the  battles  of  mankind  against  the  Makimani  or 
Bad  Spirit  and  his  hosts.  Both  these  Good  and  Bad 
Spirits  had  been  made  by  the  Great  Spirit,  in  fact  are 
to  be  viewed  as  opposites  of  the  same  thing — the  Great 
Spirit.  Thus  Winter  and  all  hostile  forces  to  man's 
comfort  are  opposed  to  Summer  and  those  forces  that 
make  for  man's  comfort.  All  the  manitos,  good  and 
bad,  are  but  the  natural  powers  derived  by  the  in- 
dividuals possessing  them  from  the  Great  Spirit  and 
are  "good"  or  "bad"  according  to  their  use  by  the  in- 
dividual in  relation  to  man  as  a  child  of  the  Great  Spirit. 

His  "Spirit"  Is  Key  To  Indian  Character 

It  is  necessary  to  understand  these  fundamental  con- 
ceptions of  "spirit  power"  before  we  can  rightly  ap- 
praise the  character  and  behavior  of  the  aboriginal 
inhabitants  of  America.  For  their  "sacred  mysteries" 
were  developed  on  this  continent  without  European  or 
other  influence,  for  thousands  of  years  before  the  white 
man  ever  saw  it. 

There  was,  and  is,  nothing  in  European  culture  past 
or  present,  that  parallels  the  religion  of  the  original 
inhabitants  of  this  continent,  unless  it  be  some  theo- 
sophical  and  mystical  ideas  of  the  middle  ages,  and  as 
we  know  those  were  of  oriental  origin. 

That  the  "American  mysteries"  were  of  unknown 
antiquity  and  origin,  even  to  the  wisest  of  the  initiated, 
is  evidenced  by  their  legends  assigning  them  to  the 
Great  Spirit  itself. 


The  Siouans  of  the  East  appear  to  have  had  the 
mysteries  even  before  the  Algonkins. 

The  Wacace  (Osages)  say  that  the  Upper  World 
of  Mankhe,  was  also  their  first  lodge  and  that  they 
came  to  earth  as  eagles. 

But  at  first  their  nation  was  ignorant  and  unorgan- 
ized; "Ganitha"  as  they  term  it  (a  word  strangely 
reminiscent  of  the  Sanskrit  Ganesha,  the  Greek 
Gnosis,  Knowledge)  and  that  it  was  due  first  to  their 
ancient  wise  men — "Little  Old  Men" — meeting  to- 
gether and  discussing  natural  phenomena  such  as  the 
behavior  of  the  heavenly  bodies,  that  they  finally  con- 
cluded there  must  be  some  governing  power  in  all 
things,  and  that  this  was  a  creative  power. 

They  called  this  power  Wakonda. 

Sometimes  it  is  referred  to  as  Ea-Wawonake,  the 
causer  of  our  being.  The  Great  Spirit  became  known 
as  Tonga-Wakon,  "The  Giver  of  Life."  Every  Ota 
or  chief  must  be  an  initiate  of  the  Wakon-Kitchewa  or 
Holy  Mysteries. 

Eventually  the  Men  of  Long  Ago,  the  Nika-Xube, 
concluded  that  nature  itself  had  its  own  governing 
power  that  causes  all  things  to  be  as  they  are,  where- 
upon they  organized  themselves  and  their  people  so 
as  to  preserve  the  knowledge  they  had  gained  and  to 
continue  their  researches.     ( See  Appendix  Note  37) . 

It  would  be  interesting,  but  is  unnecessary  here,  to 
discuss  certain  curious  words  common  to  more  than  one 
rite  of  the  mysteries,  (with  varied  meanings)  that  in- 
dicate connections  between  these  rites  in  North  America 
with  those  of  the  Pueblo  Indians  and  possibly  further 
south.  Such  as  the  Algonkin  Kitchewan,  the  Siouan 
Kitchewa  and  the  Hopi  Katcina;  or  the  word  Nika 


which  seems  to  mean  a  fraternal  brother.  (See  Appen- 
dix Note  38). 

The  point  we  seek  to  bring  out  here,  is,  that  around 
the  central  idea  of  the  Midewiwan  and  similar  organi- 
zations, that  the  Great  Spirit  created  all  things  for  the 
benefit  of  his  children,  there  grew  up  inevitably,  definite 
laws  of  the  Great  Spirit,  with  regard  to  the  conduct  of 
human  life,  both  individual,  tribal,  national  and  inter- 

We  do  not  have  to  speculate  about  these  laws  that 
were  as  sacred  to  the  Indian  as  the  religion  of  any  other 
peoples  was  to  them. 

For  we  have  proof  of  what  the  laws  were,  both  from 
the  Indians'  oral  statements  and  their  actions. 

It  was  violation  of  the  Indians'  rights  as  he  conceived 
he  had  them  from  the  Great  Spirit,  that  caused  vir- 
tually every  war  he  fought,  either  with  his  own  color  or 
with  the  whites.  Yet  these  were  not  wars  over  religion 
as  the  Europeans  knew  the  term,  but  rather  over  human 
rights  and  ideals  of  freedom,  such  as  the  American 
Revolution  was  fought  for. 

What  were  these  rights? 


"We  were  born  free — we  may  go  where  we  please 
and  carry  with  us  whom  we  please." — Garangula, 
Onandago  Chief  to  the  French  in  1684. 

"Englishmen,  although  you  have  conquered  the 
French,  you  have  not  conquered  us.  We  are  not  your 
slaves.  These  lakes,  these  woods  and  mountains  were 
left  to  us  by  our  ancestors.  They  are  our  inheritance 
and  we  will  part  with  them  to  none.  Your  nation  sup- 
poses that  we,  like  the  white  people,  cannot  live  with- 


out  bread  and  pork  and  beef.  But  you  ought  to  know 
that  He,  the  Great  Spirit  and  Master  of  Life — has 
provided  food  for  us,  in  these  broad  lakes  and  upon 
these  mountains." — Minavavana,  Chippewa  chief  to 
Major  Henry,  1761. 

"Every  Indian  or  body  of  Indians  has  a  right  to 
choose  for  themselves  whom  they  will  serve.     Every 
Indian  is  a  free  man  and  can  go  where  he  pleases." 
— Thatcher's  Indian  Biography,  Vol.  II,  pg.  175. 


"The  Great  Spirit  wishes  that  all  wars  and  fighting 
would  cease." — Cornplanter,  Seneca  chief,  1782. 

Once  war  was  declared,  the  Red  man,  being  no  hypo- 
crite, fought  with  all  the  savagery  the  occasion  demands. 
He  put  away  further  thoughts  of  peace  together  with 
the  Peace  King,  whose  functions  automatically  ceased. 
The  object  of  war,  being  to  kill  the  enemy  before  they 
kill  you,  he  did  his  best  to  wipe  out  the  other  side, 
undeterred  by  any  sentimental  idea  of  "civilized  war" 
or  "humane  war."  Possibly  due  to  this  viewpoint,  his 
wars  were  followed  by  longer  eras  of  peace  than  those 
of  other  civilizations  while  the  duration  of  Indian  wars 
compares   favorable  with  European   struggles. 

For  sake  of  comparison,  let  us  suppose  that  if  two  or 
more  nations  of  our  modern  civilization  decide  to  settle 
their  difficulties  by  war,  their  presidents,  kings  or  dic- 
tators automatically  lose  their  offices,  regardless  of 
their  personal  feelings  about  the  conflict.  They  were 
elected  to  govern  for  peace  and  all  efforts  for  peace 
having  failed,  even  though  not  their  fault,  they  must 
retire.     That  is  what  happened  in  Indian  nations.  The 


retiring  ruler  might  indeed  be  elected  a  war  captain, 
but  seldom  of  a  rank  equal  to  the  one  he  had  filled. 
Should  he  again  become  head  of  his  warring  nation,  he 
must  win  the  distinction  by  popular  approval  on  the 

The  peace  King  presided  over  the  lesser  chieftains 
until  they  decided  war.  But  he  could  not  vote  himself 
on  the  matter.  If  possible  he  tried  to  find  a  way  toward 
honorable  peace.  If  he  could  not  he  said  so  and  left 
the  decision  to  the  representatives  of  the  tribes. 

Wars  were  fought  to  a  real  finish,  the  vanquished 
being  so  thoroughly  subdued,  they  not  only  admitted  it, 
but  very  gladly  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  with  no  desire 
to  fight  any  more  during  that  generation  at  least,  be- 
cause of  sheer  physical  weakness. 

Sometimes,  when  small  tribes  or  nations  had  almost 
been  annihilated,  the  survivors  were  cheerfully  adopted 
into  the  tribes  of  their  conquerors,  given  new  names 
and  henceforth  were  as  loyal  to  their  adopted  country  as 
though  beginning  life  all  over  again.  This  sort  of 
naturalization  of  aliens  became  more  and  more  the 
vogue  between  enemy  tribes,  as  they  were  drawn  closer 
together  by  common  enmity  to  the  whites. 

The  Iroquois  Five  Nations  adopted  the  Tuscarora 
nation  (also  Iroquoian)  after  it  had  nearly  been  wiped 
out  by  the  combined  force  of  the  Siouan  Catawbas  and 
the  whites  in  Carolina.  The  Tuscarora  became  the 
Sixth  Nation.  Also  the  Iroquois  League  welcomed  and 
adopted  members  of  other  dying  tribes  that  were  its 
hereditary  enemies,  such  as  Delawares,  Siouans. 


"There  was  a  time  when  our  forefathers  owned  this 
great  island.     Their  seats  extended  from  the  rising  to 


the  setting  sun.    The  Great  Spirit  Had  Made  It  for 
the  Use  of  the  Indians. 

"He  had  created  the  buffalo,  the  deer  and  other  ani- 
mals for  food.  He  made  the  bear  and  the  beaver  and 
their  skins  served  us  clothing.  He  had  scattered  them 
over  the  country,  and  taught  us  how  to  take  them. 

"He  had  caused  the  earth  to  produce  corn  for  bread. 
All  this  he  had  done  for  his  Red  children  because  he 
loved  them. 

"If  we  had  any  disputes  about  hunting  grounds,  they 
were  generally  settled  without  the  shedding  of  much 
blood."  — Red  Jacket. 

"The  Great  Spirit  told  us  not  to  sell  any  more  of  our 
lands,  for  he  never  sold  lands  to  any  one." 

CORNPLANTER,    1782. 

Buckongahelas,  at  Vincennes,  declared  that  lands 
which  were  decided  to  be  the  property  of  the  U.  S.  were 
those  of  Delawares,  transferred  by  treaty  with  Pianka- 
shaws  30  years  before,  all  country  between  Ohio  and 
White  Rivers. 

"Sell  the  Land!  As  well  might  you  pretend  to  sell 
the  air  and  water.  The  Great  Spirit  gave  them  all 
alike  to  us,  the  air  for  us  to  breathe,  the  water  to  drink, 
and  the  earth  to  live  and  hunt  upon — you  may  as  well 
sell  the  one  as  the  other." 

— Tecumseh,  cited  page  136,  McKinney's  Hist.  Ind. 
Tri.,  Vol.  III. 

"The  idea  of  real  estate  is  unknown  to  him,  there  is 
no  rood  of  ground  to  which  he  ever  attached  the  idea  of 
possession,  past,  present  or  prospective. 

— McKinney,  pg.  286  (Id). 

"I  am  myself  come  to  bid  you  rise  and  go  with  me  to 


a  secure  place.  Do  not  my  friends  covet  the  land  you  now 
hold  under  cultivation. 

— Buckongahelas  to  Delawares,  pg.  175. 

"If  any  nations  should  call  themselves  owners  of  it 
they  would  be  guilty  of  falsehood.  Our  claim  to  it  is 
equal.     Our  Elder  Brother  has  conquered  it." 

— Chippewa  Chief  to  General  Wayne,  1795. 

"If  your  great  father  in  Washington  will  consent — 
never  to  make  a  treaty  for  land  without  the  consent  of 
All  our  allied  tribes."  — Tecumseh. 

"I  love  my  towns  and  cornfields  on  Rock  River;  it  is 
a  beautiful  country.  I  fought  for  it,  but  it  is  now  yours. 
Keep  it  as  the  Sacs  did.  — Black  Hawk. 

Brotherhood  (1684) 

"You  say  we  are  subjects  to  the  King  of  England  and 
the  Duke  of  York.  We  say  we  are  brethren  and  take 
care  of  ourselves." 

— Thatcher's  Indian  Biog.  II,  pg.  41. 

War  (1684) 

"We  knock  the  Twightwees  and  Chictaghicks  on  the 
head,  because  they  had  cut  down  the  trees  of  peace, 
which  were  the  liftiits  of  our  country.  They  have  hunted 
beaver  on  our  lands,  contrary  to  the  customs  of  all 
Indians,  for  they  left  none  of  the  beavers  alive — they 
killed  both  male  and  female.  They  brought  the  Satanas 
into  their  country,  to  take  part  with  them,  after  they 
had  concerted  ill  designs  against  us.  We  have  done 
less  than  the  English  or  French,  that  have  usurped  the 
lands  of  so  many  Indian  nations,  and  chased  them  from 
their  own  country — which  the  Great  Spirit  has  given  to 
our  ancestors.  — Garangula,  to  French  Id.,  pg.  44. 


Buckongahelas,  war  chief  of  the  Delawares  is  re- 
ported by  Heckewelder  as  saying: 

"Every  Indian  or  body  of  Indians  had  a  right  to 
choose  for  themselves,  whom  they  would  serve.  He  had 
hired  himself  to  the  King  of  England  to  fight  the  Long 
Knives.  The  Christian  Delawares  had  hired  themselves 
to  the  Great  Spirit  to  perform  prayers — he  would  never 
trouble  them  on  account  of  not  joining  the  war.  Every 
Indian  is  a  free  man  and  can  go  where  he  pleases." 

—Id.  pgs.  175-6. 


"These  men  (priests  of  white  people)  do  us  no  good. 
They  deny  the  Great  Spirit,  which  we  and  our  fathers 
before  us,  have  looked  upon  as  our  Creator.  They  dis- 
turb us  in  our  worship.  They  tell  our  children  they 
must  not  believe  like  our  fathers  and  mothers,  and  tell 
us  many  things  we  do  not  understand  and  cannot  believe. 
They  tell  us  we  must  be  like  white  people — but  they  are 
lazy  and  wron't  work,  nor  do  they  teach  our  young  men 
to  do  so.  The  habits  of  our  women  are  worse  than  they 
were  before  these  men  came  amongst  us,  and  our  young 
men  drink  more  whiskey. — We  ask  you  not  to  blot  out 
the  Law  which  has  made  us  peaceable  and  happy,  and 
not  to  force  a  strange  religion  upon  us.  We  ask  to  be 
let  alone,  and  like  the  white  people,  to  worship  the 
Great  Spirit  as  we  think  best. 

— Red  Jacket  (Iroquois),  Id.,  pg.  289. 
"Blackbird,"  an  Ojibway  chief  in  Michigan  in  the 
early  part  of  the  nineteenth  century,  wrote  a  history  of 
his  people  in  which  he  termed  the  Midewiwan  mysteries 
the  religion  of  his  people.  He  explained  that  the 
"appearance"  or  "disappearance"  of  the  Otter  which 


in  the  legends  brings  the  mysteries  to  various  places, 
indicated  the  migration  of  the  religion  with  the  people 
who  practiced  the  Otter  rite  of  it. 

There  was  also  a  "Meigis  shell"  rite,  in  which  a  shell 
rose  or  disappeared  above  the  waters,  indicating  the 
same  thing. 

"Your  forefathers  crossed  the  great  waters  and 
landed  on  this  island.  Their  numbers  were  small. 
They  found  friends,  not  enemies.  They  told  us  they 
had  fled  from  their  own  country  for  fear  of  wicked  men, 
and  came  here  to  enjoy  their  religion.  They  asked  for 
a  small  seat.  We  granted  their  request  and  they  sat 
down  amongst  us.  We  took  them  to  be  friends — they 
called  us  brothers.  .  .  .  We  believed  them  and  gave  them 
a  larger  seat.  .  .  .  They  wanted  more  land.  They  wanted 
our  country.  Our  seats  were  once  large.  ...  we  have 
scarcely  a  place  to  spread  our  blankets.  You  have  got 
our  country  but  are  not  satisfied.  You  want  to  force 
your  religion  upon  us.  .  .  .  We  also  have  a  religion  which 
was  given  to  our  forefathers  and  has  been  handed  down 
to  us,  teaches  us  to  be  thankful  for  all  favors  we  receive, 
to  love  each  other  and  to  be  united.  We  never  quarrel 
about  religion."  — Red  Jacket. 

Chief  Establishments  of  the  Midewiwan, 
The  "Temple"  or  Priests  House 

According  to  data  from  Hoffman  and  Chippewa 

1.  Atlantic  Coast. 

2.  St.  Lawrence  River — probably  near  Quebec. 

3.  Ottawa   River,   "centuries  before   Columbus." 
Probably  at  Hochelega  the  Iroquoian  capital. 

4.  Otter  Island — alias  Ottawa  Island,  now  Mani- 


toulin  in  Lake  Huron  "where  they  remained  for  cen- 

5.  Awaiting  or  Anamie-watigong.    Modern  Cross 

Village,  Mich. 

6.  Mishenama-kinagung.  Mackinaw  or  Mac- 
kinack  Island. 

7.  Nemikung  or  Nemiking,  probably  Namakan 
River  of  Canada. 

8.  Kiwawinang, — in  Michigan.  Had  special 
reference  to  the  sacred  record  sticks.  A  county  still 
bears  the  name. 

9.  Bawating  or  Boweting — Sault  St.  Marie. 

10.  Tshiwitowi — possible  in  "Shinaking"  or  Spruce 
Pine  Land. 

11.  Negawadzheu  —  Sand  Mountain,  northern 
shore  of  Superior. 

12.  Minisawikor  Minisabikkang — Island  of  Rocks. 

13.  Kawasitshiuwongk — Foaming  Rapids. 

14.  Mushkisiwi  or  Mashkisibi  Bad  River,  Michi- 

15.  Shagawamokongk,  Long  Sand  Bar  Beneath  the 
Surface.  LaPointe,  Wis.  This  is  same  as  Moning- 
wunkauning  of  some  accounts.  Mackenzie  knew  it  as 

16.  Wikewedwongga,  Sandy  Bay. 

17.  Neashiwikongk — Cliff  Point.  Probably  Red 
Cliff,  Wis. 

18.  Netawayasink — Little  Point  Sand  Bar.  Fond 
Du  Lac  on  St.  Louis  River,  Wis. 

19.  Aribis,  Little  Elm  Tree. 

20.  Wikupbimish — Little  Basswood  Island,  Lake 

21.  Makubimish — Bear  Island,  near  same. 

22.  Shageskihedawanga. 


23.  Niwigwassikongk — place  where  canoe  bark  is 

24.  Tapakweikak  or  Saapakweshkwaokongk  — 
place  where  lodge  bark  is  obtained. 

25.  Neuwesakkudezibi  or  Newisakudesibi,  Point 
Dead  Wood  Timber  River.  Deadwood  region  of 

26.  Anibikanzibi,  more  modern  Ashibagisibi  or 
Greenleaf  River,  Minn.  Means  Fish  spawn  River  and 
may  have  been  the  Fish  River  of  the  Walam  Olum, 
though  I  incline  to  think  that  was  No.  7. 

When  the  Great  League  divided  into  Western  and 
Eastern  divisions  under  Opekasit,  the  Midewiwan  was 
carried  by  the  Lenape  east  to  the  Atlantic  Coast  as  a 
matter  of  course. 

Symbols  and  Ritual 

We  have  it  on  the  authority  of  Captain  John  Smith 
of  Jamestown,  that  King  Powhattan  in  Virginia,  had  a 
"treasure  house"  at  Orapakes,  fifty  to  sixty  yards  in 
length,  frequented  only  by  the  priests,  at  the  corners  of 
which  were  images  of  a  Dragon,  a  Bear,  a  Panther,  and 
a  Gigantic  Man. 

In  these  images  we  recognize  the  manitos  of  the  four 
principle  degrees. 

The  "dragon,"  a  great  snake,  opposed  the  candidate 
in  the  very  first  degree,  symbolizing  the  powers  of 
nature,  including  his  own  wild  passions,  that  he  must 
subdue  before  he  could  hope  to  become  a  true  Mide. 
Thereafter  this  great  snake  arched  his  back  to  permit 
the  initiate  to  pass  under  in  the  succeeding  degrees.  He 
was  accompanied  by  four  lesser  snakes  who  were  soon 
disposed  of  however. 


The  manitos  of  evil  appear  to  have  travelled  in  quar- 
tettes, for  there  were  four  spirit  entrances  to  the  priest- 
house  at  the  four  cardinal  points  and  each  must  be 
guarded.  In  the  second  degree,  Makwamanito  drives 
away  four  bad  bear  spirits.  In  the  third  degree  the 
Panther  manito  drives  away  four  bad  panther  spirits. 

Two  bear  and  two  panther  bad  manitos  must  be 
overpowered  and  driven  away  in  the  fourth  degree. 

The  Mide  or  true  priest,  is  "he  that  lives  on  an 
island"  and  the  island  is  that  of  Nanabush,  his  home 
of  Minisinoshkwe  above  the  earth  in  the  land  of  spirits, 
though  some  say  far  to  the  north  and  others  say 
vaguely  here  or  there. 

Captain  Smith,  with  his  mind  on  "treasures,"  learned 
nothing  more  of  the  Midiwiwan  establishment  of  the 
Powhattans — the  Midiwigan  as  the  name  is.  Had  he 
done  so,  he  might  have  refrained  from  trying  to  entice 
the  King  into  war  with  certain  Algonkins  against  whom 
Smith  felt  certain  both  of  them  needed  "protection." 
At  least  he  might  have  understood  the  King's  biting 
sarcasm  when  he  told  the  captain  his  geography  was 
badly  out  of  line. 

White  and  Red  "Witchcraft" 

The  Puritans  on  the  other  hand,  did  recognize  the 
fact  that  the  Indians  who  had  welcomed  and  befriended 
them  had  a  "religion."  But  to  them  it  was  "devil 
worship"  and  they  said  so  loudly  and  often.  They  never 
seemed  to  understand  that  conversions  to  the  true  faith 
were  made  through  fear  in  the  heart  of  the  convert  and 
that  the  numerous  villages  of  "praying  Indians"  their 
preachers  finally  succeeded  in  establishing,  were  an 
offense  though  not  a  cause  of  war  in  itself.  (See  Appen- 
dix Note  39). 


The  Indian  wars  were  brought  on  by  the  steady  in- 
croachment  of  the  whites  on  the  rights  of  the  Indian  in 
the  fruits  of  the  land — not  the  unoccupied  land  itself. 
And  when  these  wars  came,  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  dis- 
covered to  their  dismay,  that  all  their  religious  teaching 
had  gone  for  naught.  Many  of  the  "Christian"  Indians 

It  took  the  Witchcraft  craze  among  the  New  England 
settlers  to  bring  home  to  the  Algonkins,  how  unsafe  it 
was  to  trust  the  white  man. 

As  early  as  1653,  a  Mrs.  Knapp,  who  was  hanged 
as  a  witch  in  New  Haven  Colony,  seems  to  have  told  a 
story  about  another  woman  to  the  effect  that  this 
woman  told  her  about  an  Indian  bringing  her  "two  little 
bright  things,  brighter  than  the  light  of  day"  which  were 
"Indian  Gods"  and  informing  his  recipient  that  if  she 
would  keep  them  she  would  become  rich.  Of  course 
she  did  not  know  whether  her  friend  kept  them  or  not 
though  she  said  she  had  given  them  back  to  the  Indians. 

Another  old  lady  of  New  Haven  went  to  the  authori- 
ties to  get  their  good  offices  in  suppressing  slander 
against  her.  Gossips  were  saying  that  Hobbamock,  the 
Devil  of  the  Indians,  was  her  husband.  As  the  gossips 
were  wives  of  prominent  people,  this  old  lady  was  her- 
self convicted  of  witchcraft!  One  of  the  witnesses 
against  her  was  an  Indian  girl  servant  who  had  been 
soundly  whipped  by  her  master  for  practicing  her  own 
religious  rites. 

It  is  relieving  to  know  that  the  death  penalty  was  not 
imposed  in  this  case  but  the  old  lady  put  under  a  peace 
bond  secured  by  her  own  property. 

Accused  of  taking  an  Indian  child  to  nurse  and  letting 
her  own  starve,  another  woman  was  sent  from  East- 
hampton,  Long  Island,  to  Connecticut  on  a  charge  of 


witchcraft,  in  1657.  She  was  given  a  sort  of  Scotch 
verdict  and  placed  with  her  relatives  on  good  behavior. 
So  greatly  concerned  were  the  New  Englanders  over 
the  practice  of  "witchcraft"  among  the  Indians  that 
they  passed  this  law  in  1675  : 

"Whosoever  Shall  Powau  or  Use  Witch- 
craft or  Any  Worship  of  the  Devil,  or  Any 
False  Gods,  Shall  Be  Convented  and  Pun- 

This  was  of  course  aimed  directly  at  the  Mides  and 
the  Midewiwan,  the  former  being  regarded  as  sor- 
cerers and  the  latter  probably  unknown  by  name — other 
than  as  the  possible  habitation  of  the  Devil  "Hobba- 

Religious  toleration  among  the  white  races  was  a 
thing  unknown  in  those  days,  either  in  America  or 
Europe,  Roger  Williams  being  the  first  exception,  as 
Redpath  points  out.  It  seems  strange  that  those  who 
wanted  this  toleration  most  and  had  fled  Europe  to 
escape  persecution  for  conscience  sake,  should  become 
themselves  so  intolerant,  but  such  was  the  case. 

The  Indians  were  given  other  much  earlier  examples 
of  it  than  the  Salem  Witchcraft.  The  expulsion  of 
Roger  Williams,  first  from  his  pulpit  and  then  from  the 
colony,  chiefly  because  he  insisted  that  not  even  a  King's 
grant  made  it  right  to  take  the  Indians'  land  away  with- 
out paying  him  a  fair  price. 

He  was  the  first  white  man  to  even  partly  see  the 
Indian  viewpoint  with  regard  to  land.  When  he  had 
been  received  and  given  lands  by  the  Indians  themselves 
from  whom  he  purchased  tracts  that  he  colonized,  he 
still  strove  to  save  his  fellow  settlers  from  the  horrors 


of  the  Pequod  war,  by  informing  them  as  his  friends 
had  informed  him  and  later  by  pursuading  the  Narra- 
gansets  not  to  join  the  war.  Even  for  this  service  he 
was  not  allowed  to  return ! 

The  effect  of  this  violation  of  the  laws  of  the  Great 
Spirit  upon  the  Indians,  had  consequences  in  New  Eng- 
land for  more  than  a  century.  Only  William  Penn's 
thorough  understanding  of  the  native  respect  for  the 
laws  of  the  Great  Spirit,  with  which  he  conformed  in 
every  way,  called  a  halt  in  Indian  minds  to  the  con- 
sideration of  all  whites  as  treacherous  madmen  who 
attempted  to  usurp  the  place  of  the  Great  Spirit ! 


The  Calumet  and  Wampum 

The  Calumet  or  Pipe  of  Peace,  so  called,  was  another 
universal  institution  of  aboriginal  America  before  the 
arrival  of  Europeans. 

And  this  too,  sprung  from  the  mysteries. 

It  governed  international  relations  in  peace  or  war, 
with  greater  certainty  as  to  results  perhaps,  than 
modern  diplomacy.  For  the  Calumet  was  from  the 
Great  Spirit.  Ceremonial  dances  were  to  the  Calumet 
and  all  it  represented,  rather  than  in  celebration  Of  it. 

Most  of  us  are  familiar  with  the  legend  of  the  sacred 
Pipestone  Quarry  which  the  Great  Spirit  made  holy 
ground  so  that  all  people  could  come  to  dig  for  the 
peculiar  soft  red  stone  out  of  which  the  best  peace 
pipes  were  made.  Truce  between  enemies  must  be 
observed  on  this  neutral  ground.  And  the  truce  was 
never  broken. 

Originally  the  Calumet  was  not  a  pipe  at  all  but  two 
shafts  of  reed  or  wood,  from  18  inches  to  four  feet 
long,  usually  perforated  for  the  passage  of  the  breath  or 
spirit.  Attachment  of  a  pipe  filled  with  tobacco  of  the 
Great  Spirit,  was  a  later  innovation,  though  obviously 
an  ancient  one,  perhaps  as  old  as  the  cultivation  of 

These  two  shafts  were  the  Niniba  Weawan  and  one 
was  male  and  the  other  female. 

Through  them  the  celebrant  sent  out  his  own  spirit 
to  mingle  with  that  of  the  Great  Spirit  and  in  return 
breathed  in  the  breath  of  Kitchemanito  himself. 



Thus  the  Great  Spirit  was  present  and  participating 
in  the  counsels  of  all  bearers  of  the  pipe.  Agreements 
were  more  binding  where  the  Calumet  was  invoked, 
than  any  number  of  sworn  statements  could  possibly 
have  been,  for  deliberate  violation  of  such  an  agree- 
ment invited  punishment  by  the  Great  Spirit,  which 
might  come  from  any  of  his  faithful  children  or  from 
some  sudden  and  terrible  catastrophe  in  the  chase  or 
other  ordinary  pursuit  of  life.  The  violator's  Manito 
would  become  weak,  since  the  Great  Spirit  could  easily 
withdraw  it  at  any  time. 

Even  if  not  withdrawn,  having  offended  Kitche- 
manito,  one's  personal  Manito  was  bound  to  be  very 
bad  and  must  depend  upon  association  with  the  Bad 
manitos  for  its  future  welfare. 

These  "prayer  sticks"  performed  the  same  functions 
for  travellers  among  other  nations,  as  the  modern 
passport  system  does  for  us.  When  the  whites  came 
among  the  Indians,  they  found  that  the  possession  of  a 
Calumet  given  by  one  tribe,  a  common  passport  through- 
out their  journeys. 

Ambassadors  were  all  Pipe  Bearers.  The  Calumet 
was  used  to  conciliate  unfriendly  peoples  and  effect 
alliances  with  the  friendly.  It  was  also  used  to  petition 
the  Great  Spirit  for  favorable  weather  for  journeys; 
for  needed  rain;  for  attesting  contracts  and  treaties. 

To  refuse  the  Calumet  was  an  unfriendly  act. 

In  using  it,  with  pipe  attached,  smoke  was  blown  to 
the  four  quarters  of  the  earth  and  to  the  sky  by  each  of 
the  successive  smokers,  who  passed  it  from  one  to  an- 

Ceremonial  regulations  surrounded  the  smoking  of 
the  Calumet  to  such  an  extent  that  various  assistants 
were  employed  in  great  occasions.     Its  decorations  of 


feathers  and  fur  from  various  birds  and  animals,  were 
all  symbolic  of  various  manitos  relating  to  the  subject 
under  consideration  by  the  smokers.  In  some  cere- 
monies, the  smoking  pipe  itself  was  omitted  and  its 
place  taken  by  such  objects,  regarded  by  the  whites  as 
"fetishes."  Forked  sticks  were  required  to  support  t! 
hollow  stems. 

Songs  and  dancing  were  among  the  accompaniments 
of  the  ceremony  to  the  Calumet. 

Now  in  all  this,  it  was  the  Calumet  itself  that  was 
honored  and  not  the  bearers  or  the  smokers  of  it,  nor 
the  senders  or  receivers  nor  yet  the  agreement  reached 
by  them.  The  dancing  and  the  songs  were  to  the  Calu- 
met because  it  was  sacred  and  a  gift  from  the  Great 
Spirit — or  as  the  Sioux  said  the  Sun,  symbol  of  Tongo- 

Wampum  Recorded  Agreements  on  the  Calumet 

When  words  of  wisdom  had  been  agreed  upon  by  the 
Council  in  which  the  Calumet  was  honored,  belts  of 
wampum  were  exchanged  recording  the  fact.  Into  the 
wampum  were  woven  the  symbols  that  enabled  the 
initiated  to  recall  the  exact  terms  agreed  upon.  (See 
Appendix  Notes  23  and  40). 

This  was  equivalent,  in  the  case  of  peace  treaties 
for  example,  to  signed,  sealed  and  delivered  and  ac- 
cepted state  papers. 

Thus  wampum  had  far  greater  significance  than 
might  be  supposed  from  its  use  as  a  commercial  pro- 
duct. One  of  the  occupations  of  Indians  in  peace  time 
was  the  manufacture  of  wampum,  either  from  rough 
shell  clay  or  stone  beads  or  some  equivalent  such  as 
porcupine  quills  dyed  various  colors  and  cut  into  very 
small  pieces  like  elongated  beads. 


Just  as  the  Calumet  existed  for  many  purposes,  so 
did  wampum. 

The  New  England  settlers  did  a  thriving  business 
with  the  Indians  in  bright  colored  beads  and  were  soon 
using  beads  as  money  and  collecting  taxes  and  tribute 
from  the  natives  in  wampum. 

There  is  one  legend  concerning  the  origin  of  wam- 
pum that  illustrates  the  picturesque  symbolism  of  the 
Red  man  when  accounting  for  some  of  his  customs 
perhaps  better  than  any  other. 

In  the  ancient  councils  of  priests,  (ethnologists  in- 
sist on  calling  them  "shamans"  as  though  they  were 
Mongols)  every  time  an  exceedingly  great  priest  drew 
upon  his  pipe,  wampum  fell  from  his  mouth.  If  the 
wampum  was  white,  it  denoted  the  priest  was  of  medium 
power;  if  half  white  and  half  reddish  he  was  least 
powerful;  but  if  almost  black,  then  he  would  win  over 
these  "shamans"  and  others  who  had  the  most  wampum. 

So  it  came  about  that  two  nations  making  a  treaty  of 
peace  gave  each  other,  the  beads  woven  into  a  belt,  de- 
signed with  two  hands,  meaning  they  would  fight  no 

The  symbol  of  the  two  hands  as  peace  signs  is  easily 
understood  in  all  languages.  Among  the  ancient  priest- 
hoods as  pictured  on  ceremonial  objects  both  in  North 
and  Central  America,  will  be  found  the  open  hand  on 
the  skirt  or  apron  worn  around  the  waist.  And  all 
know  the  modern  Indian  sign  of  peace  which  preceded 
the  Fascist  sign  and  probably  ancient  Rome  by  a  good 
many  centuries;  the  raised  open  right  hand. 

The  House  of  the  Mysteries,  whether  in  the  more 
pretentious  stationary  temples  of  the  Natchez  and 
agricultural  tribes  of  the  South,  or  the  temporary  bark 
and  wicker  structures  of  the  nomadic  Northern  Algon- 


kins,  was  literally  the  source  of  all  governmental 
authority.  The  life  of  individuals  and  nations  had  been 
moulded  by  its  teachings  for  ages  when  Columbus 
started  out  for  India  and  wound  up  in  America. 

And  there  was  obviously  a  cult  of  priesthood  and 
prophets,  as  closely  bound  together  by  ties  of  mystic 
brotherhood  as  were  the  Sons  of  the  Prophets  in 
Biblical  times.  Peace  Kings  were  not  allowed  to  hold 
office  once  war  had  been  declared.  Their  function  and 
tenure  of  office  automatically  expired. 

These  Peace  Kings  might  have  been  War  Chiefs  in 
their  time  but  their  duties  as  Peace  Kings  were  no  sine- 
cure. And  few  of  them  were  elected  War  Chiefs  after 
failure  as  Peace  Chieftains! 

Insofar  from  the  Indian  being  simply  addicted  to 
War  and  bloodshed  from  sheer  savagery  and  the  lack 
of  any  authority  to  curb  his  bloodthirstyness,  the  Holy 
Mysteries  inclined  him  toward  the  ways  of  peace  as  we 
have  seen  in  the  actual  history  of  the  Great  Lenape 
League  as  related  by  the  Lenape,  for  more  than  eleven 

But  the  Indian  was  also  taught  bravery  and  all 
manly  qualities  from  childhood.  He  was  perhaps 
treated  less  harshly  than  the  admired  Spartan  youth  or 
the  Persian  lads  who  were  thrown  in  snow  banks  to  live 
or  die.  In  fact  the  Indians  were  extraordinarily  kind 
to  their  children,  and  like  the  Esquimaux,  rarely  if 
ever  beat  them  for  punishment. 

Captain  Smith,  who  noted  with  suspicion  the  per- 
formances of  the  Indians  around  Jamestown  with 
young  boys  who  were  taken  off  into  the  woods  and  did 
not  come  back,  seems  to  have  concluded  they  were  being 
"sacrificed"  to  idols  or  something  and  what  did  he  care. 
Those  who  think  the  Indians  had  no  humor  should  read 


the  replies  of  the  natives  to  his  prying  questions.  Yes, 
they  said  maybe  some  of  the  lads  would  not  be  able  to 
stand  it  and  die. 

It  was  this  "Indian  Religion,"  that  caused  the  first 
natives  encountered  by  Europeans,  to  greet  their 
visitors  hospitably,  surrender  to  them  even  whole  vil- 
lages and  other  "seats"  for  homes,  teach  them  to  grow 
crops  and  prepare  meals  and  make  clothes  and  hunt  and 

The  first  settlers  of  Maryland  were  obviously  so 
bewildered  that  the  kindly  natives  moved  out  of  their 
village  overnight  to  accommodate  them.  That  village 
grew  into  the  modern  St.  Mary's.  Salem,  Massachu- 
setts, of  Witchcraft  fame,  was  originally  known  as 
Naumbeg.  Bristol,  Rhode  Island,  was  Massasoit's 
capitol  of  Pokahoket. 

Tamanend  III  lived  near  the  outskirts  of  modern 
Philadelphia,  and  that  city  became  a  council  place  for 
the  Delaware.  A  surprisingly  large  number  of  Ameri- 
can cities  were  originally  Indian  villages,  some  still 
bearing  the  names  or  corruptions  of  them. 

And  it  was  the  European's  refusal  to  adapt  himself  to 
the  laws  of  the  land  in  which  he  expected  to  make  his 
fortune,  that  led  to  the  long  and  bloody  conflicts  between 
him  and  the  natives. 

Especially  was  this  so  with  regard  to  title  in  lands  as 
already  explained. 

This  law  being  also  derived  from  the  "Indian  Reli- 
gion," it  gradually  became  obvious  to  the  natives  of  all 
nations  and  tribes  that  they  must  band  together  as  one, 
regardless  of  old  feuds,  or  die  separately. 

Which  accounts  for  the  wars  from  "King  Philip's"  to 
Tecumseh  and  the  lesser  wars  afterward. 


The  Liberty  Boys  and  St.  Tammany 

Pioneer  trappers  and  hunters  of  all  the  contending 
European  governments  exploiting  America,  were  natur- 
ally the  first  whites  to  learn  with  respect,  some  of  the 
native  ideals  concerning  freedom  in  a  free  land. 

They,  by  the  necessities  of  their  profession,  cultivated 
friendly  relations  with  as  many  tribes  as  possible,  often 
resulting  in  lasting  professions  of  brotherhood  between 
them  and  the  Red  brother.  Whether  a  French  "courier 
du  boise"  or  a  Virginia  "long  hunter,"  these  whites 
were  themselves  nomads,  to  whom  their  red  friends 
sometimes  unburdened  themselves  in  regard  to  the  per- 
manent settlers  fast  driving  away  the  game  that  meant 
life  or  death  for  the  Indian. 

So  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  colonists,  with  nearly 
two  hundred  years  opportunity  for  absorbing  the 
native  viewpoint  concerning  the  nature  of  this  land  and 
the  position  in  it  of  free  men,  entitled  to  such  of  its 
resources  as  they  could  procure  from  their  own  exer- 
tions, came  to  have  a  very  real  regard  for  many  old 
traditions  arising  out  of  the  Tamanend  ideal.  And  as 
for  the  Tamanend  legend  of  the  Delawares,  whether 
viewed  as  reference  merely  to  William  Penn's  friend, 
or  to  the  ancient  kings  of  the  name  before  him,  he  was 
undoubtedly  a  "Saint"  in  American  eyes,  compared 
with  anything  British  or  European ! 

All  throughout  the  Colonies,  prior  to  the  American 



Revolution,  militia  companies  or  semi-military  groups 
based  their  social  organizations  on  the  Indian  pattern, 
and  often  with  Indian  ceremonies. 

Many  of  them  regarded  the  story  of  Tamanend  a 
fitting  symbol  for  their  ideals  of  freedom.  As  a  friend 
of  Americans  before  the  whites  came,  and  especially 
after  they  came  with  William  Penn,  this  Tamanend 
himself  was  an  original  American  holy  man  worthy  of 
being  sainted — so  he  was  promptly  given  the  name  of 
Saint  Tammany,  patron  of  America. 

Maypoles  became  Liberty  poles,  around  which  the 
new  children  of  St.  Tammany  danced  with  more  or  less 
grace  and  vigor.  May  1,  or  as  others  have  it,  May  12 
was  set  aside  on  revolutionary  calendars  as  St.  Tam- 
many's day  and  celebrated  with  festivals  in  approved 
Indian  fashion. 

The  Liberty  Boys  carried  on  the  idea  through  the 
Revolution.  A  party  of  their  "braves"  emptied  some 
tea  into  Boston  Harbor.  The  American  soldiers  car- 
ried the  Tammany  ideals  the  length  and  breadth  of  the 
country  they  were  fighting  for.  There  is  still  a  St.  Tam- 
many's parish  in  Louisiana  and  various  towns  named 
Tammany  scattered  up  and  down  the  coast. 

When  the  military  Societies  of  St.  Tammany  closed 
after  the  Revolution,  one  of  them,  originally  a  loyalist 
Society  of  King  Tammany,  continued  as  the  Improved 
Order  of  Red  Men! 

As  after  all  American  wars,  many  veterans  decided 
that  some  perpetual  organization  should  be  formed. 
Most  of  the  officers  favored  something  after  a  Euro- 
pean pattern,  a  bit  aristocratic  and  possibly  a  dispenser 
of  medals,  honors  and  titles.  George  Washington  was 
urged  to  make  himself  King.  He  refused  with  more 
anger  than  scorn,  swearing  vigorously,  it  is  said. 


The  officers  however  went  ahead  with  their  plans 
and  founded  the  Society  of  the  Cincinnatus,  named  after 
the  ancient  Roman  farmer  who  left  his  plow  to  win  a 
war  for  his  country.  Into  this  society  few  if  any  com- 
mon soldiers  were  allowed. 

American  Veterans  Organize  "Tammany"  Society 

The  Common  Soldiers  got  up  an  organization  of 
their  own  headed  by  William  Mooney  in  New  York, 
1786,  a  former  leader  in  the  "Sons  of  Liberty."  Its 
purpose  was  to  guard 

"The  independence,  popular  liberty  and  federal 
union  of  the  country." 

It  politically  opposed  the  efforts  of  the  aristocratic 
element,  represented  by  Alexander  Hamilton  and  the 
Federalists,  for  making  the  government  practically  a 

This  organization  was  sometimes  called  "The  Colum- 
bian Order"  and  its  ritual  was  based  on  supposed  Indian 
Customs,  but  was  commonly  alluded  to  as  the  Tammany 
Society  and  regarded  as  a  revival  of  the  Revolutionary 
societies  of  that  name. 

"St.  Tammany"  however  was  an  Algonkin  saint  and 
New  York's  chief  Indian  tribes  were  Iroquois,  so  to 
balance  state  and  national  pride,  the  "Wigwam"  of  the 
new  Society  (Wigwam  being  an  Algonkin  word)  was 
patterned  after  the  Long  House  of  the  Iroquois.  Pos- 
sibly there  were  similar  clashes  of  Indian  patterns  in 
the  ritual,  though  the  Algonkin  names  of  officers  seem 
to  have  been  preserved  while  the  ritual  was  made 
dominantly  Iroquoian. 

There  were  13  tribes  to  correspond  to  the  thirteen 
states  each  of  which  was  to  have  its  own  state  organiza- 
tion and  Indian  totem,  as  follows. 


New  York,  The  Eagle, 
New  Hampshire,  The  Otter, 
Massachusetts,  The  Panther, 
Rhode  Island,  The  Beaver, 
Connecticut,  The  Bear, 
Delaware,  The  Tiger, 
Pennsylvania,  The  Rattlesnake, 
Maryland,  The  Fox, 
Virginia,  The  Deer, 
North  Carolina,  The  Buffalo, 
South  Carolina,  The  Raccoon, 
Georgia,  The  Wolf. 

The  Kitchi  Okeinaw  or  Grand  Sachem,  an  honorary 
national  office,  was  conferred  on  the  President  of  the 
United  States.  This  office  was  held  by  Washington, 
Adams,  Jefferson,  John  Q.  Adams  and  Jackson,  after 
which  it  was  abolished. 

The  chief  of  a  "Tribe"  was  its  Sachem;  the  master 
of  ceremonies,  the  Sagamore;  The  Sergeant  at  Arms, 
the  Wiskinskie.  Its  era  began  1492  and  included  the 
foundation  of  the  Society  and  the  Declaration  of  Inde- 

The  records  were  kept  by  moons  and  seasons  and  the 
costumes  were  semi-Indian  dress. 

Mooney  held  this  society  together  for  20  years  and 
until  the  War  of  1 8 1 2  its  efforts  are  credited  with  saving 
this  Republic  as  a  Republic.  The  aristocratic  ideal  was 
very  effectually  obscured  and  made  harmless.  The 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  adopted  the  year 
after  Mooney's  revival  of  the  St.  Tammany  ideals 
perhaps  owes  more  than  history  credits  them  for,  to  the 
original  members  of  the  Tammany  Society. 

They  were  chiefly  instrumental  in  negotiating  a  peace 


treaty  with  the  Creek  Indians  in  1790,  which  secured 
peace  along  the  Southern  border.  They  met  the  dele- 
gates of  the  creed  nation  in  full  regalia  and  entertained 
them  in  approved  Indian  style. 

The  Indian  Museum,  germ  of  the  New  York  His- 
torical Society,  was  founded  by  Tammany. 

Burial  was  given  the  remains  of  Revolutionary  vic- 
tim of  British  prison  ships  at  Wallabout  Bay,  in  1808. 

Tammany  furnished  three  generals  in  the  war  of 
1812  and  had  1200  men  constructing  the  defences  of 
New  York  City. 

Gradually  as  the  political  power  of  the  Society  over- 
shadowed its  other  activities,  and  the  other  state  organ- 
izations died  out,  it  became  the  sole  society  of  its  kind 
and  peculiarly  was  a  New  York  institution. 

It  continued  its  patriotic  work  however  up  to  the 
time  of  the  Civil  War. 

General  Montgomery's  body  was  brought  back  from 
Canada  in  1817. 

Tammany  was  responsible  for  securing  full  manhood 
suffrage  in  New  York  State  in  1826  and  five  years  later 
succeeded  in  abolishing  imprisonment  for  debt. 

Its  Grand  Sachem  went  to  war  in  1861  as  Colonel 
of  the  42nd  New  York  Infantry  raised  entirely  from  its 
own  members. 

It  has  been  said,  with  some  truth,  that  Americans  are 
the  greatest  "joiners"  in  the  world.  The  number  of 
patriotic  and  other  organizations,  each  with  some  ideal 
connected  with  the  welfare  of  this  nation,  has  grown  to 
legion  since  the  Revolution.  Tracing  their  origin  and 
history  is  somewhat  similar  to  a  labor  in  geneology. 

But  the  common  ideal  of  all  of  them,  seems  to  center 
around  the  perpetuation  of  peace  and  prosperity  by 
making  its  members  better  American  citizens.     To  do 


this,  there  is  invariably  found  somewhere  in  the  "ritual" 
those  ideas  of  freedom  in  a  free  land  for  free  men,  that 
are  the  outstanding  characteristics  of  the  ancient 
American  Tamanends. 

None  but  Americans  themselves,  seem  able  to  com- 
prehend them. 


The  Walam  Olum  or  Red  Score 

Dr.  Alexander  Ward  of  Cynthiana,  Ky.,  secured  the 
"bundles  of  painted  sticks"  which  constitute  the  Walam 
Olum  or  Red  Score,  in  1820.  It  is  believed  he  got  them 
in  return  for  some  important  service  rendered  "a  Dela- 
ware chief"  possibly  the  Grand  Sachem  himself. 

He  turned  them  over  to  Constantine  Rafinesque, 
then  holding  a  chair  at  Transylvania  University,  Lex- 
ington, Kentucky,  and  the  distinguished  French  scien- 
tist, himself  deeply  interested  in  archeology  and  eth- 
nology, secured  the  songs  from  other  Delawares,  two 
years  later. 

After  learning  the  Delaware  language  himself,  he 
translated  the  "tally  sticks,"  full  of  hieroglyphics,  and 
with  the  aid  of  Dr.  Brinton  of  Philadelphia,  recon- 
structed a  history  therefrom  in  1833  which  has  been 
the  puzzle  of  ethnologists  since.  There  have  been 
several  translations  made  since  that  time,  the  latest  in 
1925  under  the  auspices  of  the  Pennsylvania  Historical 
Commission  with  the  aid  of  James  Webber  "a  Dela- 
ware ex-chief." 

Very  little  difference  can  be  found  between  the  several 
literal  translations  naturally,  since  Rafinesque  unques- 
tionably did  excellent  work  and  was  known  to  be  an 
accomplished  linguist.  It  is  in  the  various  interpreta- 
tions of  the  literal  text  that  the  widest  variations  occur. 
Dr.  Brinton  was  inclined  to  view  this  history  as  cover- 



ing  a  period  of  thousands  of  years — two  thousand  any- 

Some  would  have  the  Lenape  coming  from  the  west 
instead  of  the  north  east.  For  a  long  while,  many 
serious  students  doubted  the  authenticity  of  the  record. 
It  is  generally  conceded  today  that  it  is  a  genuine  abor- 
iginal record. 

But  what  history  does  it  actually  reveal?  With  what 
period  does  this  history  deal? 

By  several  fortunate  circumstances,  I  was  enabled  to 
find  what  I  believe  to  be  the  correct  answers  to  both 
questions,  though  I  must  disclaim  all  pretension  to  being 
a  linguist  myself,  or  to  having  made  any  new  literal 
translation  of  the  text. 

Squeer's  translation  happens  to  be  the  one  from 
which  I  have  reconstructed  the  history  and  which  I 
have  attempted  to  turn  into  a  rough  metrical  story, 
more  in  keeping  with  the  native  language.  Not  that  it 
is  pretended  to  be  "poetry"  for  even  Longfellow  found 
the  cadence  of  the  Red  man's  chants  impossible  to 
adapt  to  the  white  man's  conception  of  rhythm.  It  is 
too  distinctly  American ! 

The  fortunate  circumstances  were,  that  after  many 
years  of  browsing  through  literature  concerning  Indian 
nations,  and  coming  to  many  conclusions  entirely  op- 
posite to  those  I  had  started  with,  I  found  that  Colonel 
Lucien  Beckner,  of  Louisville,  Ky.,  having  undertaken 
much  the  same  sort  of  research,  and  being  an  old  college 
chum,  in  addition  to  being  one  of  the  foremost  Indian 
students  in  the  United  States,  was  quite  agreeable  to 
lending  me  the  results  of  his  labors  for  inspection. 

To  him  belongs  the  honor  of  making  the  first  tenta- 
tive chronology  for  the  Walam  Olum  by  means  of 
taking  the  two  cited  occasions  on  which  the  record  says 


that  "Whites  were  coming,"  fixing  known  historical 
dates  to  them,  and  dividing  the  time  between  these  dates 
by  the  number  of  Sakima  or  Kings  mentioned  in  between. 

Chronology  of  the  Red  Score 

There  could,  of  course,  be  very  little  latitude  between 
the  years  selected  by  him  and  myself  for  these  two  fixed 
dates,  because  the  only  question  that  could  arise  as  to 
the  exact  year,  was  in  a  difference  of  opinion  as  to  which 
of  two  or  more  events  occurring  closely  together,  was 
more  likely  to  have  attracted  the  attention  of  the 
natives,  considering  all  the  circumstances. 

Thus,  his  tentative  first  date  for  the  chronology  is 
that  of  Verrizanos  voyage  in  1521.  I  selected  John 
Cabot's  voyage  of  1498,  because  it  was  the  earliest  and 
for  several  lateral  reasons. 

Upon  the  second  or  ending  date,  both  were  agreed 
as  to  the  settlement  of  Jamestown,  Va.,  and  the  coming 
of  the  Dutch  into  New  York.  Instead  of  1621  I  con- 
cluded the  year  must  be  one  in  which  the  followers  of 
Captain  John  Smith  had  not  as  yet  so  angered  the 
Algonkins  that  they  were  openly  attempting  to  destroy 
the  first  settlement  in  Southern  Algonkin  territory.  The 
date  1617  1  finally  selected  may  be  a  trifle  too  late  at 

To  other  dates  depending  upon  Indian  legend  and 
probable  connection  with  the  story,  reasons  for  which 
are  not  essential  here,  enabled  a  final  adjustment  of  the 
chronology  which,  over  a  period  of  eleven  centuries, 
shows  remarkably  little  discrepancy  between  Colonel 
Beckner's  work  and  my  own. 

This  approximate  and  tentative  chronology  of  course 
deals  only  with  the  obviously  historical  part  of  the 


narrative.    The  mystical  and  legendary  portion  affords 
a  very  rich  field  for  future  ethnological  research. 

As  to  the  reconstruction  of  the  historical  part, 
Colonel  Beckner's  preliminary  work  and  conclusions, 
with  which  at  first  I  was  inclined  to  agree,  simply  did 
not  fit  into  the  facts  as  I  came  to  view  them  after  con- 
siderable research.  Instead  of  all  historical  action 
having  taken  place  east  of  the  Mississippi,  as  we  both 
originally  assumed,  it  seemed  impossible  for  this  to 
have  happened  if  many  of  Colonel  Beckner's  soundest 
conclusions  in  other  respects  were  true. 

Moreover  the  early  stories  told  to  pioneers  by  the 
Delaware,  insisted  that  the  Lenape  came  from  west  of 
the  Mississippi,  and  our  early  historians  pointed  out 
that  ever  since  the  Europeans  first  came  to  these  shores, 
the  Delaware  had  slowly  been  returning  west  of  the 
Father  of  Waters  from  which  they  originally  came. 

In  short,  the  reconstruction  of  history  as  I  have  pre- 
sented it  in  these  pages,  is  the  only  one  that  seems  to 
fit  exactly  into  all  the  known  facts  and  conclusions  of 
modern  research. 

It  would  probably  be  out  of  place  here  to  comment 
at  any  great  length  on  the  nature  of  the  hieroglyphics 
of  the  Walam  Olum,  other  than  to  say  they  were  merely 
mnemonic  symbols,  a  sort  of  aboriginal  shorthand, 
from  which  the  singers  at  a  festival  could  recite  what 
they  had  learned  orally — and  do  it  word  for  word.  In 
the  "mysteries"  or  holy  side  of  Indian  life,  certain 
symbols  to  aid  memory  were  burned  and  later  painted 
on  short  flat  sticks  which  were  then  tied  into  bundles, 
equivalent  to  our  chapters  of  a  book.  In  addition  to 
this,  a  wider  use  was  made  of  strings  or  belts  of  wam- 
pum for  the  same  purpose. 

Obviously,  therefore,  the  literal  translation  of  a  word 


or  combination  of  a  word  derived  from  naming  these 
symbols,  by  no  means  tells  the  whole  story. 

It  was  realization  of  this  fact  that  led  me  to  question 
the  inner  and  full  meaning  of  much  of  the  literal  trans- 
lation. In  doing  so,  when  a  large  number  of  legends 
were  compared  with  the  translated  symbols,  and  often 
the  very  name  of  a  symbol  plus  legend  seemed  to  be 
perpetuated  in  the  name  of  a  geographical  location,  the 
story  as  I  have  written  it,  began  to  take  such  definite 
form,  that  I  could  not  escape  the  conclusion  I  was  on 
the  right  track. 

To  use  but  one  illustration,  the  first  Tamanend  or 
Affable  is  said  in  the  literal  translation  to  be  "the  first 
of  the  name,"  because  these  words  are  meant  by  the 
Lenape  word  Nekohatami. 

A  Scotch  fur  trader  of  the  eighteenth  century  how- 
ever happens  to  record  an  interesting  story  told  him  by 
the  natives  concerning  one  of  their  old  places  on  Rainey 
River.  There,  was  where  the  "Nectam"  lived  who  is 
described  as  King  of  all  the  Algonkin  Nations  of  the 
Lake  Superior  region  and  a  Peace  King  who  cannot 
declare  war  but  who  presides  over  the  Grand  Council. 

Here  then  is  proof  that  Nekohtami  was  itself  a 
title  of  Tamanend  and  its  meaning  in  connection  with 
legends  of  Tamanend,  included  the  idea  that  he  was 
First  in  all  things — which  is  covering  a  lot  of  territory, 
but  no  more  than  the  admirers  of  George  Washington 
did  when  they  held  him  First  in  War,  Peace  and  the 
hearts  of  his  countrymen! 

One  significant  word  of  this  sort  includes  so  many 
ideas  that  perhaps  the  original  chanters  of  the  Walam 
Olum  got  out  of  it  far  more  than  the  extensive  story 
here  set  down.  They  knew  more  about  the  events  with 
which  the  symbols  were  concerned. 


With  these  preliminary  suggestions,  the  reader  is 
left  to  judge  whether  the  more  or  less  metrical  setting 
of  the  Walam  Olum,  and  notes  thereto  are  justified. 

Book  I.     Genesis 


At  first  the  sea  all  land  did  cover; 
Heavy  mists  were  all  about  it 
And  Kitche  Manito,  Great  Spirit 
Everywhere,  unseen,  eternal. 

He  made  the  earth;  He  made  the  heavens; 
He  made  the  sun,  the  moon,  the  stars  too 
And  caused  them  all  to  move  in  order. 

Strong  winds  cleared  away  the  thick  fog, 
Blew  the  waters  from  the  highlands 
So  we  have  now  many  islands, 
Many  streams  and  rushing  waters. 
So  the  world  grew  greener,  brighter. 

Kitche  Manito  then  made  him 
Lesser  manitos,  his  helpers, 
Creators,  watchers  over  Nature. 



Made  the  first  of  beings,  spirits; 

Souls  He  made  and  human  beings; 

For  every  living  thing  a  mother. 

He  made  fishes,  He  made  turtles, 

He  made  beasts  and  made  the  birds  too. 

But  Makimani,  Evil  Spirit, 
Made  the  first  of  all  bad  beings; 
The  mystery  snake  and  all  sea  monsters. 
'Twas  he  that  made  the  fly,  the  gnat  too. 

All  creation  then  was  friendly, 
For  truly  manitos  were  active; 
Nature's  manitos  were  kindly. 

As  wives,  they  gave  men  those  first  mothers; 
Provided  food  when  people  asked  it. 
All  had  happy  cheerful  minds — then. 
There  was  leisure;  there  was  pleasure. 


But  then  came  to  this  land  so  stealthy, 
Wakon  Powako,  Great  Magician; 
Priest  snake,  with  an  evil  power; 
Priest  of  foes  with  bad  intention. 
Wickedness  he  brought — unhappiness 


For  the  people  in  that  country. 
Storms,  bad  weather,  death  and  sickness 
Followed  in  his  path  of  evil. 

These  things  happened  long  ago  there 
In  the  ancient  world  of  first  things 
On  Kitahikan,*  the  Great  Ocean. 

Book  II.   The  Flood 


Long  ago,  when  Maskanako 

Strong  Snake,  leader 

Of  those  first  cohorts  of  evil, 

Greatly  hated  our  forefathers, 

He  and  they  waged  constant  warfare; 

Hurt  each  other — never  peaceful. 

There  was  fighting,  there  was  driving 
Men  from  homelands,  sending  people 
To  the  land  of  the  Dead  Keeper 
(To  the  realm  of  Chipiapoos 
One  of  Nanabousha's  Brothers.) 

*Mide  on  Atlantic,  8000-10,000  years  ago. 


Maskanako  was  determined 

To  destroy  that  first  creation; 

To  destroy  both  men  and  creatures. 

Three  allies  had  Maskanako. 
Black  Snake  (made  by  Makimani, 
Evil  Spirit  to  the  Mide; 
For  the  mystic  rite  of  Mide). 

Then  a  Monster,  all  devouring, 
(Even  Chakekenapok  the  flinty) 
Stirred  the  Great  Snake  waters 
Of  a  sudden,  rushing  flood-time. 

Rushed  that  flood  down  through  the  valleys 
Laying  waste  and  bringing  terror. 

But  Nanabush,  the  Strong  White  One 
Was  at  Tula,  on  his  island. 
Nanabush  the  grandfather 
Of  those  first  men  and  first  creatures. 
He  was  walking  there,  attending 
To  the  creeping  things,  the  turtles 


Being  born  in  Turtle  Country 
(Giving  name  to  Turtle  Island, 
Nanabush's  home  in  Tula.) 


To  this  haven  there  at  Tula, 
Struggled  all  the  first  men  wildly; 
Through  the  floods  came  all  the  creatures 
Seeking  safety  on  the  Turtle, 
On  the  Turtle-back  of  Tula. 

Some  were  swimming  through  the  waters, 
Some  were  wading  through  the  shallows, 
Some  were  creeping,  gasping,  broken, 
Many  floated  down  to  Tula 
On  the  rising  flood  of  waters 
Covering  all  but  Turtle  Island. 


And  in  the  waters  great  sea-monsters 
Seized  and  ate  some  of  the  people. 


Grandfather  Nanabush  had  pity, 
Helped  his  creatures  to  the  island. 
Was  he  not  the  friend  of  mankind, 
And  grandfather  of  all  turtles? 



Also  Nanabush's  daughter 
(Spirit  daughter,  yet  half  mortal) 
To  and  fro  in  her  canoe  went 
Helping,  saving,  from  the  waters. 


Then  were  men  like  turtles  huddled 
All  together  on  the  Turtle 
In  that  island  land  of  Tula, 
Frightened,  praying,  despondent, 
Knowing  only  life  was  in  them. 


Then  their  prayers  (unto  the  Spirits, 
to  Grandfather  Nanabusha) 
Asked  the  gift  of  restoration 
From  disaster  and  from  wreckage; 
Asked  return  of  what  the  flood  took, 
Freedom  from  that  Maskanako. 


Their  prayers  were  answered  when  the  waters 
Ran  from  off  the  land  they  lived  in 
And  the  lakes  once  more  subsided; 
When  the  plains  and  when  the  mountains 
Free  from  water,  now  were  dried  up 
And  Maskanako  had  departed, 
Leaving  all  once  more  in  silence, 
Leaving  peace  behind  and  silence. 



III.     Tula 


Like  turtles  in  holes,  lived  the  Lenni  Lenape 
When  the  flood  had  subsided,  the  waters  had  stilled. 
All  were  together,  all  closely  crowded 
In  caves  and  in  hollows,  in  crudest  of  shelters. 

It  is  cold  in  that  land,  for  it  freezes  and  snows  there. 
It  storms  in  that  northland  we  came  from  of  old. 

In  that  far  northern  place,  people  longed  for  a  milder 
Climate  like  that  our  race  had  once  by  the  ocean, 
Where  deer  were  abundant  and  buffalo  plentiful. 
(A  land  to  the  southward,  much  nearer  the  sea.) 

So  our  people  spread  out  as  they  travelled,  dividing 
According  to  bent,  into  hunters  and  farmers. 
Those  who  were  strong,  hunted  food  for  the  people. 
The  priests,  (who  were  elders  and  learned  in  wisdom) 
Guarded  the  homes,  taught  making  of  houses. 



But  the  hunters  were  strongest,  united  and  holy 
(for  the  best  men  alone  are  worthy  the  secrets 
Of  Nature  as  taught  by  the  priests  of  the  Mide; 
Theirs  the  four  stations  where  the  Otter  appeared). 


To  the  North,  to  the  East,  to  the  South  and  the  West- 

The  hunters  first  showed  themselves,  good  men  and 
true  men. 

And  the  best  in  that  White  Land,  the  Northland  of 

Were  the  Lenape  of  the  Turtle  Clan,  first  men  of  Tula. 

Now  at  every  home  fire  in  the  land  men  were  troubled 
By  the  Nakapowa  whose  warning  caused  sorrow. 
"Leave  everybody  for  Snakeland  to  eastward." 
War  had  weakened  the  nation,  divided  and  trembling 
From  burnt  homes,  were  many  fleeing  toward  sunrise 
For  haven  in  Akomenaki,  Snake  Island. 


Only  the  tribes  in  the  North,  free  from  trouble, 

Free  from  destruction,  could  move  as  they  pleased, 

Sending  their  bands  out  in  any  direction. 

The  fathers  of  Bald  Eagle,  sachem  of  Eagles, 

The  fathers  of  White  Wolf,  head  of  the  Wolf  clan, 

Chose  to  remain  on  Pokhapokhapek 

Where  the  muscles  and  fishes  there  made  the  sea  rich. 



Our  ancestors  have  always  explored  up  the  rivers 
In  boats,  as  they  did  then,  finding  good  hunting. 
Akomenaki  that  eastward  Snake  Island 
Also  was  rich  ( so  the  hunters  reported ) . 


Head  Beaver  (the  Sachem  to  Eastward)  took  counsel 
With  Big  Bird1  (the  Eagle  division  to  Northward)  ; 
"Let  us  all  go  to  Snake  Island"  decided  these  sachems, 
And  now  all  agreed  with  their  chieftains  to  go. 


Everyone  shouted,  "Come  let  us  go  snaking 
With  leaders  so  bold,  come,  let  us  destroy 
This  fortified  place  on  thte  enemy  island." 
The  Eagles,  the  Beavers,  Northern  and  Eastern 
(frontiers  of  the  League  of  the  Algonkin  people) 
Agreed  to  cross  over  the  hard  frozen  waters 
And  seize  upon  Akomenaki  and  hold  it. 


'Twas  winter  and  out  on  the  slippery  water 
Of  the  stony  hard  sea,  the  adventurers  went. 
They  trod  the  great  ocean,  Kitahikan  they  walked  on, 
Pokhakhopek  they  crossed  on  toward  Akominaki. 

iBig  Bird   (Kicholen),  590  A.D. 



Ten  thousand  people  crossed  o'er  Kitahikan 
All  in  one  night,  all  walking  and  walking, 
Going  to  Snake  Island,  walking  and  walking, 
Coming  from  North  and  from  East  and  from  South. 


The  Eagles,  the  Beavers,  the  Wolves,  were  the  tribes- 
The  priests  came,  the  rich  men,  the  women  and  children, 
And  even  the  dogs  on  that  wonderful  journey. 


They  crossed  to  a  land  full  of  spruces  and  pine  trees 
And  tarried  for  years  at  Shinaking.    That  country  they 
Named  from  its  forests  Spruce-Pineland  (a  good  land 
With  its  shores  and  its  fishing,  the  sea  for  defense.) 


A  vast  number  came  to  Shinaking  from  Tula. 

But   the   Westerners   doubted — they   loved   their   old 

So  parted  the  Lenni  Lenape  of  the  Turtle 
Who  held  the  west  door  of  the  Algonkin  League. 



Book  IV 


Long  ago  at  Spruce-pineland 
Our  fathers  dwelt  with  Wapallanewa.2 
He  was  King;  he  was  pipe-bearer, 
While  we  searched  for  Akhomenis, 
For  that  big  and  fine  "Snake  Island." 

Bald  Eagle  died  there,  in  Shinaking, 
While  the  hunters  made  them  ready 
For  the  quest  of  Akhomenis, 
For  that  journey  to  the  Island. 

Then  was  called  the  great  Menalting — 
Where  the  leaders  smoked  together 
And  decided  peace  and  warfare. 
One  was  chosen  for  the  Sachem, 
All  there  said  unto  Kolawil,3 
"You  be  King,  you  are  the  leader." 
(He  was  chosen,  was  Kolawil, 
For  his  wisdom,  manly  bearing. 
"Beautiful  Head"  his  name,  has  meaning) 

2  Wapallanewa  (Bald  Eagle,  Pipe  Bearer  and  Nakopowa),  600  A.D. 

3  Kolawil— Sakim    (Fine  Head),  611  A.D. 


We  came  upon  the  Snakes  at  Snake  Mound, 
Stormed  and  took  it,  though  defended. 
Some  of  the  foe  were  slain;  the  weak  ones 
Fled  for  concealment  to  the  Bear  Hills. 

After  Kolawil,  Wapaghokos  * 
Was  King  in  Spruce-pineland, 
White  Owl,  sachem  in  Shinaking. 

Janotowi,5  after  White  Owl, 

He  was  "On  Guard,"  that  true-maker 

(King  of  all  Algonkin  people). 

After  him,  they  chose  Chilili e — 
Snow  Bird — they  elected  Nectam, 
And  he  counselled  going  southward, 
That  our  fathers  spread  abroad  there 
And  possess  the  land  they  wanted. 

Chilili  lead  us  south,  with  honor 
While  the  Beavers,  eastward  went — 
Theirs  was  e'er  the  eastern  portal 
Of  the  League;  their's  to  guard  it. 

4  Wapagokhos   (White  Owl);  Nekama — "Nectam"?  621  A.D. 
0  Janotowi  (On  Guard  or  True  Maker),  633  A.D. 
•Chilili   (Snow  Bird),  643  A.D. 



For  "Snakeland"  was  that  land  to  Southward. 
Great  Shinaking  was  toward  the  Shore, 
With  "Fishland"  eastward  (of  the  Beavers)  ; 
Buffalo  Land  was  toward  the  Lakes. 


After  Chilili,  one  called  "Siezer"  7 
Was  made  King — the  Great  Warrior, 
Even  Ayamek,  he  was  Nectam. 
He  had  wars  with  all  these  people: — 


He  fought  Snakes,  the  Akhonapi 

On  the  South  of  the  Lenape. 

He  fought  too  the  Assinapi, 

"Stone  Men"   (once  a  friendly  Snake  Tribe), 

With  Evil  Men  and  Robbers — (Rebels 

Were  these  evil  Makatapi, 

Rebels  were  these  Chikonapi). 


Ayamek  died  and  there  was  warfare, 
South  and  East,  for  generations. 
Ten  Kings  fought  in  this  long  struggle. 
(Little  time  for  making  records). 

7  Ayamek  (Great  Warrior  or  "Siezer"),  644  A.D. 
8— 17  unnamed,  654 — 761  A.D. 


After  these  kings  Peaceable  was  King  there 

Over  Snake  Land,  Akolaking. 

Langundowi1*  was  the  peace  king. 

After  this  one,  Tasukamend,19 

They  called  Not  Black,  just  and  straight  man 

Was  the  King  and  next  Much  Loved, 

Pemaholend,20  good-deed  doer. 


Then  came  Matemik21  the  builder, 
He  built  towns,  "No  Blood"  they  called  him 
(He  was  peaceful  like  the  others 
Making  peace  and  building  towns). 
Pilwhalen,22  holy,  pure  one 
Followed  Matemik  the  Builder. 
Gunokim,23  Snowfather  came  next 
Mangipitak,24  Big  Teeth  followed  him. 


Then  came  Olum-api25  King  who  made  the 
Records  of  the  Walam  Olum 
(Painted  sticks  tied  up  in  bundles 
Records  of  the  Red  Score  starting.) 

18  Langundowi    (Peaceable),  761   A.D. 

19  Tasukamend    (Never  Bad  or  "Not  Black"),  773  A.D. 
20Pemaholend    (Much  Loved),  783  A.D. 

21  Matemik   (No  Blood  or  The  Builder),  804  A.D. 

22  Pilwhalen    (Holy  One),  794  A.D. 

23  Gunokim    (Snow  Father),  816  A.D. 

24  Mangipitak    (Big  Teeth),  826  A.D. 
2S01umapi    (Tally  Maker),   837   A.D. 



Taguachi26  followed  this  one 
Shiver-With-Cold  the  records  call  him. 
To  the  Corn  Land,  Minihaking 
Taguachi  went  (to  learn  it, 
Learn  the  ways  of  growing  food). 


Huminiend27  became  the  next  King 
Cornbreaker  the  records  named  him 
For  he  taught  people  how  to  plant  it 
(To  make  hominy  to  till  the  soil). 


Alkosohit,2'  was  the  next  king 
He  that  kept,  preserved  his  race, 
Strong  Man  was  the  name  they  gave  him 
He  was  useful  to  the  race. 


Salt  Man,  was  the  next  King 
Shiwapi29  maker  of  the  white  sand  "Sikey" 
(He  taught  the  art  to  our  forefathers 
Never  users  of  this  snake  food). 

28  Taguachi   (Shiver  With  Cold),  847  A.D. 
27  Huminiend    (Corn  Breaker),  859  A.D. 

2S  Alkosohit    (Keeper-Preserver,   "Strong  Man"),   869  A.D. 

29  Shiwapi    (Saltman),  880  A.D. 



Dried-up-one,  he  they  call  Penkwonwi30 
Little-One  the  records  call  him 
Was  the  next  king  after  Salt  Man. 
(He  was  old  and  wise  was  this  one) . 


There  was  no  rain,  there  was  no  corn 
(For  the  Great  Drouth  came  upon  the  land) 
Our  people  were  far  from  the  sea  shore. 
He  led  us  eastward  where  at  least  was 
Good  buffalo  land  near  a  Cave  Place 
Where  was  found  a  fine  prairie 
Where  at  last  we  fell  to  eating. 


After  Penkwonwi  came  the  tired  one 

He  they  called  much  Fatigued, — 

In  the  records  Wekwochella31 

And  after  that  one,  Chingalsuwi32 

He  the  Stiff  One  (straight  and  narrow). 


Then  was  one  still  worse  than  Stiff  One 
Called  "Reprover"  by  the  people. 
Kwitikwond33  whom  they  hated 

30  Penkwonwi   (Dried  Up  Man  or  "Little  One"),  890  A.D. 

31  Wenkwochella   (Fatigued),  890  A.D. 

32  Chingalsuwi   (Stiff  One),  902  A.D. 

33  Kwitikwond  (Reprover),  923  A.D. 


To  obey  whom  were  unwilling. 
Many  left  him,  being  angry, 
Many  young  one  secretly 
Left  and  went  to  eastward. 

But  the  wise  ones  stayed,  (removed  him) 
Making  Makoholend34  King, 
Makoholend  called  the  Loving  One. 
Under  him  were  all  united 
All  were  friends  with  this  great  King. 


The  tribes  now  settled  on  Yellow  River35 
Settled  again  on  the  Great  Meadow 
(Where  the  traders  all  foregathered 
From  the  furthest  water  pathways 
In  the  land  that  we  had  conquered). 
Here  was  land  for  corn  and  foodstuff 
Without  a  stone  in  all  the  meadow. 


All  were  friends  then  and  the  King  was 

Tamanend36  that  great  one  known  as 

Affable,  the  Nokohatami 

First  of  that  illustrious  name  he. 

(Tammany  the  Nektam 

So  the  pale-face  would  have  called  it). 

34  Makoholend     (Loving    One),    933    A.D. 

35  Yellow  River,  la.   (Wisawana)  ;  Madawasin  (Great  Meadow). 
60  Tamanend    (Tammany  I,  "Affable"),  946  A.D. 



All  Lenape  were  friends  of  Tammany 
All  the  tribes  came  to  support  him. 
(Once  again  Algonkin  people 
Had  a  strong,  united  League  there). 


Strong  Buffalo,  Maskansisil,37 
Was  King  after  this  good  one, 
He  was  king  and  pipebearer. 
Machigokloos,  38  Big  Owl  followed, 
Wapicholen,39  White  Bird  followed  him 
Wingenund,40  the  Willing  One 
Next  was  king,  he  was  priest  too 
And  made  feasts  so  all  were  happy, 
(Made  the  festivals  of  peacetime 
For  the  Mide  and  the  people). 


Lapawin,41  the  whitened  one, 
Called  "Rich  Again"  in  the  record 
Next  was  King  (and  all  were  happy). 
The  Painted  One,  or  Wallama42 
Followed  next;  Waptipatit43 
White  Fowl  followed  him. 

37  Maskansisil    (Strong  Buffalo,   also  Pipe  Bearer),  956  A.D. 

38  Machigokloos   (Big  Owl),  967  A.D. 

39  Wapicholen  (White  Bird),  977  A.D. 

40  Wingenund    (Mindful  or  "Willing  One"),  989  A.D. 

41  Lapawin    (Rich  Again),  999  A.D. 

42  Wallama  (Painted  One),  1010  A.D. 

43  Waptipatit   (White  Fowl),   1020  A.D. 



Then  came  war,  both  North  and  Southward. 
Father  Wolf,  Wise-in-Council 
Was  the  King — wise  in  warfare, 
Knowing  how  to  fight  all  foemen. 
He  killed  Strong-Stone 
(Chieftain  of  the  Assinapi). 


Tumaokan,44  Father  Wise  Wolf 

Was  succeeded  by  another, 

Like  himself,  called  Messisuwi,45 

Always-Ready-One  who  made  war  on 

Snakes  to  southward,  Akowini. 

(They  were  western  "Sioux"  and  "Adders") 


Chitanwulit,46  Strong-and-Good-One, 
Next  was  King  and  fought  with  sorrow, 
With  the  Northern  people — sadly. 


Alokuwi47  next  was  King  there, 

He  fought  Tawas  who  made  war  on 

Alokuwi  called  the  Lean  One. 

(War  with  Ottawa,  war  with  Brothers 

Of  the  Great  Algonkin  League. 

War  with  members  of  the  Menalting 

Where  all  smoked  on  peace  and  war). 

44  Tumaokan   (Wolf  Father),  "Wolf  Wise  in  Council,"  1032  A.D. 

45  Messisuwi  (Always  Ready  One),  1042  A.D. 

46  Chitanwulit,  1053  A.D. 

47  Alokuwi   (Lean  One),  1063  A.D. 

Opekasit4*  now  was  King  there 
Opekasit,  Eastern-Looking, 
Some  said  this  one  was  "Oppossum  Like." 
He  was  sad  at  so  much  warfare. 
"Let  us  leave,"  said  Opekasit, 
"Let  us  travel  toward  the  sunrise. 
"There  are  eastward  lands  to  live  in, 
"Here  are  foes  that  are  too  many." 
(Here  were  Brothers  in  the  Council 
Oppekasit  loath  to  fight  was, 
Rather  would  he  lead  one  Brother, 
Leave  the  other  at  Headquarters, 
Gaining  Peace  and  gaining  sorrow, 
Gaining  new  lands  for  the  people). 

They  divided  at  Fish  River, 
Nemasipi  they  agreed  at, 
One  to  stay  and  one  to  eastward. 
(The  Lenape  and  Opekasit 
Left  the  Tawa  in  possession, 
Called  them  "Lazy"  in  the  records 
Since  they  joined  not  in  the  venture 
For  new  lands  so  far  to  eastward.) 

Yagawanend,49  Cabin  Man,  succeeded 
Opekasit  as  the  leader. 
Eastern  lands  (across  the  waters) 
Were  possessed  by  Talligewi. 
(There  were  Talaga  in  that  country 
Toward  whose  fertile  plains  they  traveled). 

48  Opekasit   (East  Looking)   "Opossum  Like,"  1075  A.D. 

49  Yagawanend,  "Cabin  Man"  (Hut  Maker),  1085  A.D. 



Chitanitis,60  Strong  Friend  next  was  King 

And  much  desired  the  rich  land  eastward. 

Some  Lenape  advanced  and  entered 

(Thinking  they  would  settle  there) . 

The  King  of  Talega  however 

(Seeing  how  great  numbers  soon  would  come) 

Attacked  the  settlers,  killed  some  of  them. 


Fury  filled  all  in  our  armies, 
"War"  they  cried.    Of  one  mind  all  were. 
"War  and  war,"  they  all  demanded. 
To  the  North  were  friends  and  allies, 
They  were  sent  for  to  be  helpers. 
Talamatan's  (Hurons)  came  to  join  us. 


Kinechepend,51  called  the  Sharp  One, 
Next  as  king.     He  was  the  leader 
And  pipe-bearer  to  the  foe 
Across  the  river;  carried  war 
Beyond  the  river  to  the  foeman. 
All  rejoiced  to  fight  those  battles, 
Killing,  conquering  Talega  towns  there. 

50  Chitanitis   (Strong  Friend),  1096  A.D. 

51  Kinechepend   (Sharp  One),  Talega  War,  1106  A.D. 



Pimikhasuwi'"  the  Stirrer 

Next  was  king  and  fought  with  vigor. 

But  the  Talega  defenses 

Were  too  strong  for  easy  taking. 


Fire  Builder  the  next  King 
Opened  paths  by  shooting  firebrands. 
Tenchekentit'3  knew  how  firebrands 
Could  be  made  to  burn  their  forts  up. 
Many  forts  and  towns  were  conquered 
By  the  clever  Tenchekentit. 


Paganchihilla,'4  Breaker  in  Pieces 
Was  the  great  fullfiller  now. 
He  was  King  and  won  the  war  there, 
Driving  Southward  all  the  Talega. 


Hattanwulaton55  now  was  peace  King. 
"He-has-possession"  say  the  records. 
"He-has-pleasure" — name  they  call  him. 
All  the  armies  now  rejoice  there 
For  the  mighty  victory  won. 

52  Pimikhasuwi    (Stirrer),   1118  A.D. 

58  Tenchekentit,  "Fire  Builder"   (Path  Opener),  1128  A.D. 
S4Paganchilla    (Great  Fulfiller),   "Breaker  in  Pieces,"   1139  A.D. 
55  Hattonwulaton  (He  Has  Possession)  "He  Has  Pleasure,"  1150  A.D. 



Lenape  were  settled  on  the  new  land 

Below  the  Sea,  Below  the  Great  Lakes. 

The  Talamatan,  friends  and  allies 

Were  given  lands  North  of  the  Great  Lakes. 

(Were  settled  North  of  Lake  Superior 

In  the  lands  of  the  Algonkins). 


Gunitakan,56  Not-Always-Friend  (to 
Those  who  questioned  his  decisions) 
Now  was  King.    The  records  call  him 
"Long-and-Mild."      (A  just  judge  he, 
Thought  the  people  that  he  ruled  o'er. 
There  were  some  though  disagreeing. 
The  Talamatan  North  of  the  Great  Lakes 
Had  no  part  of  what  was  conquered.) 
Those  not  friends  of  Attabchinitis 
Conspired  against  him — but  in  secret. 


Linniwulamen,57  next  was  King  there 
Truthful  Man,  said  what  he  thought,  he! 
The  Talamatans  waged  an  open  warfare 
(Because  he  bluntly  spoke  against  them, 
Refused  to  change  the  spoils  division). 

56  Gunitakan  (Long  and  Mild),  1162  A.D. 

07  Linniwulamen,  "Truthful  Man"   (Truthteller),  1172  A.D. 



Shakagapewi,58  the  Just-and-True  one 
Next  was  king — subdued  the  Hurons, 
Made  the  Talamatan  to  Tremble. 
(Once  as  allies,  these  were  rebels. 
Now  subdued  and  forced  to  bow  them). 

End  Book  IV 


Book  V.    To  the  Sea 


All  was  peaceful,  long  ago  there 

In  the  land  of  Talega 

(In  the  Valley  of  Ohio 

Ancient  Home  of  the  Moundbuilder 

Talligewi  whom  we  conquered, 

Sioux  and  Cherokee  together). 

Tamaganend,59  called  Pipe-Bearer 
Was  the  King  and  At  White  River 
(In  the  place  whites  call  Indiana. 

58  Shakagapewi,  "Just  and  Upright"   (Just  and  True),  1183  A.D. 

59  Tamaganend  (Pipe  Bearer),  1193  A.D. 



Wapashuwi,60  White  Lynx  next  was  King  there 

In  his  time  much  corn  was  planted; 

Wulitshinik61  then  succeeded, 

Good  and  Strong  the  record  names  him, 

Population  was  increasing 

And  the  nation  growing  stronger. 

Lekihiten,62  the  Recorder 
Painted  on  the  Walam  Olum 
Brought  the  Red  Score  up  to  present. 

Kolachuisen,63  Pretty  Blue  Bird 
Followed  him  and  crops  in  his  time 
Were  abundant  at  the  harvest. 

Pematalli,64  Always-There,  he 
Ruled  when  many  towns  were. 
(People  of  the  Lenni  Lenape 
Flocked  from  west  and  other  quarters 
And  the  villages  were  increasing). 

80  Wapashuwi   (White  Lynx),  1205  A.D. 

61  Wulitshinik   (Good  and  Strong),  1215  A.D. 

62  Lekihiten  (Recorder),  1237  A.D. 

63  Kolachuisen,  "Pretty  Bluebird"   (Fine  Bluebird),  1247  A.D. 
6*  Pematalli  (Always  There),  1258  A.D. 



Pepomahenem,65  next  was  King  there 
Paddler-up-Stream  so  they  called  him. 
Everywhere  he  was  exploring 
(Looking  to  the  common  welfare). 

Tankowon86  the  modest  next  King, 

Little  Cloud  by  name  and  omen. 

Many  bands  of  younger  warriors 

Left  the  country  for  adventures. 

The  Nanticokes67  went  South  at  this  time 

(In  Maryland  long  afterward  they  were) 

And  Southward  went  the  Shawnee  people. 


Big  Beaver,  Kitchi-Tamak,68 
Was  the  next  King,  his  headquarters 
Were  at  White  Lick,  Wapahoning 
(In  the  north-east  of  Ohio 
At  the  edge  of  Talaga  nearly)  t 


Came  now  one  we  called  the  Prophet, 
Onowutok,89  named  the  Seer. 
He  was  highly  praised  by  all  men 
(Holy  priest  with  powers  of  vision 
For  the  welfare  of  his  people). 

66  Pepomahenem,  "Paddler  Up  Stream"    (Navigator),  1268  A.D. 

66  Tankowon   (Little  Cloud),  1280  A.D. 

67  Nanticokes   Shawnees.   See  V-32. 
88Kitchi  Tamak  (Big  Beaver),  1290  A.D. 

69  Onowutok,   "The   Seer"    (Prophet),   1301    A.D. 



To  the  west  he  went  and  southwest, 
All  the  western  villages  he  went  to. 
(With  a  foresight  he  was  knowing 
What  the  future  need  might  be; 
Binding  all  by  ties  together 
That  the  Kingdom  might  be  stronger). 


Pawanami70  of  the  Turtles 

Called  Rich  Man  Down  the  River 

Next  was  king  and  moved  headquarters 

To  the  Talaga  River  flowing 

On  the  Talega  southern  border. 


Much  war  came  unto  the  next  King, 
Lokwelend,71  he  was  called  the  Walker. 
Again  the  Tawa  and  the  Stone  Men 
And  the  Northerners  waged  a  warfare. 
(These  were  rebels  as  before  when 
West  and  East  were  made  divisions 
Of  the  League  there  at  Fish  River). 


Mokolomokom72  was  the  next  King, 
Hunting  foes  in  boats  on  rivers. 
Grandfather-of-Boats  was  what  they  called  him 
For  these  "snaking"  expeditions. 

70  Pawanami,  "Rich  Man  Down  River,"  Talega  River,  1311  A.D. 

71  Lokwelend,  "Walker,"   1323  A.D. 

72  Mokolomokom   (Grandfather  of  Boats),  1333  A.D. 



Winelowich73  or  Snow-Hunter 
Also  kept  the  Northland  peaceful 
He  succeeded  Makolomokom. 


Linkwekinuk74  moved  headquarters 

In  the  East  to  Talagachukang, 

To  the  Mountains  of  the  Talega 

Went  this  King  called  Look  About  Him. 


Wapala-Wikwan75  the  "East  Villager" 
Followed  him  and  moved  still  further 
'Til  he  found  and  told  the  people 
He  was  east  of  Talega  borders. 
"Ho,  a  large  land  and  a  long  land 
Is  this  land  I  now  am  taking. 
'Tis  a  rich  land,  Snakes  don't  own  it, 
Full  of  good  things  is  this  east  land." 


Gikenopalat78  was  the  next  King, 
Him  they  named  Great  Fighter.     He 
Moved  his  forces  toward  the  northward 
Getting  nearer  to  the  salt  sea. 

73  Winelowich    (Snow  Hunter),   1344  A.D. 

7*  Linkwekinuk,  "Look  Out"   (Alert),  1354  A.D. 

75  Wapalawikwan   (East  Villager),  1366  A.D. 

76  Gikenopalat,  "Great  Fighter"   (Great  Warrior),  1376  A.D. 



On  the  river  Saskwihanang 
(Called  by  whites  the  Susquehanna) 
Hanaholend,77  River  Loving 
Made  headquarters  of  the  Kingdom. 


Growing  Fat  the  next  King  was  there 
In  this  new,  fine  Winikaking; 
In  this  Sassafras-Land  of  plenty 
Gattawisa78  served  his  people. 


Now  all  hunters  reached  the  seacoast 
(Where  there  ancestors  once  lived) 
Once  again  made  strings  of  wampum 
On  the  sun-salt  sea  board  there. 


Makiawip,79  the  Red  Arrow 
Next  was  King  and  he  returned  to 
The  villages  on  the  Susquehanna. 
Wolomenap,80  Painted-Man  he, 
Went  back  to  the  Mighty  Waters, 
Back  to  Maskekitong  the  Main  stream 
(Looking  to  the  common  welfare 
Of  both  east  and  west  divisions). 

77  Hanaholend   (River  Loving),  1387  A.D. 

78  Gatta  Wisa,  "Becoming  Fat"   (Growing  Fat),  1397  A.D. 

79  Makiawip   (Red  Arrow),  1410  A.D. 
80Wolomenep  (Painted  Man),  1424  A.D. 



At  this  time  (from  the  Ohio) 

Moved  the  Wolves  and  Easterners81  Northeast. 

War  was  brewing.     Wulitpallat,82 

King  called  Good  Fighter  led  the  army, 

Went  against  the  northern  Mengwae83 

Went  against  the  Lynx  people  too. 

(Iroquois  now  are  those  Mengwae, 

Eries  are  the  Lynx  today). 

Both  the  peoples,  Lynx  and  Mengwae 

Trembled  at  the  war  we  brought  to  them.  . 


But  again  an  Affable 
Arose  to  make  Peace  instead  of  warfare 
Tamanend84  (the  second  Tammany) 
Was  a  great  one,  all  men  loved  him. 
All  the  nations  now  made  treaties, 
All  were  friends,  all  united. 


Kitchi-Tamak,85  Great  Beaver 
Next  was  king  and  he  remained  in 
Sassafras  Land,  but  the  next  one 
Wapahakey,86  called  White-Body 
Chose  the  Shore  for  his  headquarters. 

81  Easterners — "Wapanand,"  Wabanaki  or  So.  Abanaki.     Wolves- 
Minsi,   and   Mohican   ancestors. 

82  Wulitpallat,  "Good  Fighter"   (Good  Warrior),  1438  A.D. 

83  Mengwae    (Lynx). 

8±Tamanend   (II),   (Affable),  1451  A.D. 

85  Kitchitamak   II,   "Great  Beaver"    (Big  Beaver   II),   1463   A.D. 

86  Wapahakey   (White  Body),  1476  A.D. 



Elangomel,"7  the  Peacemaker 

Did  much  good,  when  he  was  King 

Followed  by  that  Pitinumen88 

Not  so  good  for  his  mistakes. 

"He  Makes  Mistakes"  was  what  they  named  him, 

Always  coming  from  somewhere 

(But  not  quite  sure  of  what  he  wanted) . 


At  this  time  the  Whites89  were  coming. 
On  the  eastern  sea  we  saw  them. 
(Pitinumen  saw  the  whites  or  meant  to 
Rushing  to  the  sea  for — what  for?). 


Makelomush,90  Much-Honored, 
Next  was  King,  our  people  prospered. 
He  was  followed  by  Wulakeningus.91 


This  one  was  well  named  "Well-Praised." 
For  Wulakiningus  fought  the  Southerners. 
Forced  to  combat  the  Otali92 
And  their  allies  the  Koweta, 

87Elangorael    (Peacemaker),   1487  A.D. 

88  Pitinumen,  "He  Makes  Mistakes,"  1+98  A.D. 

89  Whites    (Cabot),   1498  A.D. 

90  Makelomush    (Much   Honored),   1507  A.D. 

91  Wulakeningus    (Well  Praised),   1516  A.D. 

92  War  vs.  Otali  and  Koweta. 


(Well-Praised  carried  war  to 

These  Talega  mountaineers 

With  their  Muskohegan  allies 

Carried  war  to  Cherokee 

And  Creek  alike  and  was  successful). 


Now  came  King  Wapagumoshki,93 
Called  White-Otter  (wise  was  this  one, 
For  he  foresaw  future  troubles 
And  prepared  by  making  allies). 
Wapagamoshki  made  a  treaty 
With  the  Hurons,  Talamatans, 
Ancient  Friends  (and  once  the  foeman 
After  war  with  Talega) . 


White-Horn,  Wapashum,94  next  King 

Visited  the  Talega  in  the  West 

(Cherokee  still  on  the  Ohio. 

'Twas  a  peaceful  visit  that  time). 

White-Horn  too,  went  to  these  others 

(Of  the  Algonkin  peoples  they) 

To  the  Hilini,95  to  the  Shawnee  and  Kanawhas. 


Nitispayat96  was  the  next  King, 

He  continued  peaceful  friendships. 

93  Wapagumoshki    (White  Otter),  1525  A.D. 

94  Wapashum   (White  Horn),  153+  A.D. 

95  Hilini,  Shawnee,  Kanawha.     See  IV-9. 

96  Nitispayat,      "Coming-as-Friend"      (Friend      Maker      or      Friend 
Comer),  1543  A.D. 


To  the  Great  Lakes  this  one  travelled 
Seeing  friends  and  visiting  all 
The  children  of  the  Lenape  People. 


Pakimitzen97  followed  next  there 
("On  the  Shore"  the  old  home  place) 
Keeping  up  the  work  of  the  last  King, 
"Coming-As-Friend"  or  Nitispayat. 
Pakimitzin,  "Cranberry-Eater" 
Made  the  treaty  with  the  Tawa 
(Welcomed  back  those  ancient  rebels) 


Lowaponakan98  the  North-Walker 
At  Niagara  made  his  quarters 
Lived  at  Ganshowenik  (with  the 
Newly  allied  Talamatan 
Near  the  friendly  Ottawa-Tawas) . 


Tashawinso99  the  "Slow  Gatherer" 
Next  was  King  at  "Shayabing" 
Which  is  Shore-place  on  the  Salt  Sea 
(Which  the  place-face  calls  New  Jersey) 
His  the  task  to  slowly  gather 
All  the  tribes  of  the  Lenape 
Now  on  eastern  seacoast  living. 

97  Pakimitzen    (Cranberry  Eater),   1552  A.D. 

98  Lowaponskan    (North  Walker),   1561   A.D. 

99  Tashawinso,    "Slow   Gatherer,"    1570   A.D. 



Now  was  time  to  reassemble 
All  the  old  division  eastward 
And  reorganize  in  Grand  Council 
Into  three  clans100  that  they  wanted. 
Unamini  were  the  Turtles 
Minsimini  were  the  Wolf  Clan 
(Ancient  West  and  Southern  Stations 
Of  the  first  Algonkin  League). 


Chikimini  was  the  third  clan, 
Called  the  "Turkeys."    (They  were 
Eagles,  some,  and  Beavers  too?) 


Epalahchund101  now  became  king 
(And  he  failed  with  preparation 
That  was  made  for  the  occasion) 
He  fought  Mengwae,  Iroquois  men. 
"Man  who  Fails"  the  record  called  him. 


Langomuwi,102  He-Is-Friendly 
Fought  the  Mengwae  too  and  scared  them 
(So  the  record  runs,  but  meaning 
"He-Is-Friendly"  made  a  peace  there). 

100  Unami    (Turtles);   Minsi    (Wolves),  Chikimini    (Turkeys). 

101  Epalachund,  "Man  Who  Fails"  (Failure),  1579  A.D. 
102Langomuwi   (He  Is  Friendly),  1588  A.D. 



Wangomend,103  ("Saluted")  he  had  foemen 

In  the  mountains  and  Ohio. 

Over  yonder  in  Scioto 

On  the  river  of  Ohio 

There  were  foes  and  in  the  Mountains. 


Otalawi  now  were  giving  trouble 

In  the  Allegheney  Mountains 

Those  Cherokee  behind  the  mountains. 

(On  Scioto  were  the  Shawnees, 

No  longer  friendly  with  the  League  there. 

They  were  southern  and  a  nation 

That  had  helped  to  Conquer  Talega. 

Here  their  home  they  said  whenever 

They  desired  it — League  or  no  League). 


White  Crab,  Wapachikis104 
Was  the  next  king  after  this  one. 
He  lived  on  the  shores  of  Jersey 
And  was  called  friend  of  the  Shore. 


Nanachihat,105  the  "Watcher" 
Was  the  last  King  of  the  Red  Score, 
(There  were  others,  but  warfare 
Closed  the  record  at  this  place). 

103  Wangomend    (Saluted),   1597   A.D. 
in4  Wapachikis    (White  Crab),   1607  A.D. 
103  Nanachihat    (Watcher),    1617   A.D. 



"Watcher"  was  a  seaward  looker, 

In  his  time  the  White  Men  came 

Both  from  the  South  and  from  the  Northward. 

They  caused  people  to  greatly  wonder. 

They  were  friendly  and  had  great  things. 

(Ships  and  guns  that  changed  the  course  of 

Indiana  life  and  civilization 

On  the  land  where  they  were  living). 


Delaware  Text 

"Bundle"  I 

1.  Sayewi  talli  wemiguma  wokgetaki. 

2.  Hakung    kwelik    owanaku    wakyutalli    kitani- 

3.  Sayewis  hallemiwis  nolemiwi  elemanik  kitani- 
towit  essop. 

4.  Sohalawak  kwelik  hakik  owak  awasagamak. 

5.  Sohalawak  gishuk  nipahum  alankwak. 

6.  Wemi  Sohalawak  yulik  yuchaan. 

7.  Wichowagan      kshakan      moshakwat     kwelik 

8.  Opeleken  manimenak  delsinepit. 

9.  Lappinup  kitantowit  manito  manitoak. 

1 0.  Owiniwak  angelitawiwak  chicankwak  wemiwak. 

11.  Wtenk  manito  jinwis  lennowak  mukom. 

12.  Milap  netami  gaho  owini  gaho. 


13.  Namesik  milap  tulpewik  milap   awesik  milap 
cholensak  milap. 

14.  Makimani  shak  sohalawak  makowini  nakowak 

15.  Sohalawak  uchewak  sohalawak  pungusak. 

16.  Nitisak  wemi  owini  W'delsinewuap. 

17.  Kiwis  wuwand  wishimanitoak  essopak. 

18.  Nijini  netami  lannowak  nigoha  netami  okwewi 

19.  Gattaminnetami  mitzi  nijini  nantine. 

20.  Wemi  winginamenep  wemiksinelendanep  wemi 

21.  Shukand    elikimi    mekenikink   wakon   powako 

22.  Mattalogas  pallalogas  maktaton  owagon  pay- 
atchik  yutali. 

23.  Maktapan  payat  wihillan  payat  mboaganpayat. 

24.  Wonwemi  wiwunch  kamik  atak  kitahikan  neta- 
maki  epit. 


1.  Wulamo  maskanako  anup  lennowak  makowini 

2.  Maskanako  shingalusit  nijini   essopak  shawa- 
lendamep  ekan  shingalan. 

3.  Nishawi    palliton    nishawi    machiton    nishawi 
matta  lungundowin. 

4.  Mattapewi  wiki  nihanlowit  mekwazoan. 

5.  Maskanako  gishi  penauwelendamep  lennowak 
owini  palliton. 

6.  Nakowa    petonep    amangam    petonep    akope- 
hella  petonep. 


7.  Pehella  pehella  pohoka  pohoka  eshohok  esho- 
hok  paliton  paliton. 

8.  Tulapit  menapit  Nanaboush  maskaboush  owini- 
mokom  linowimokom. 

9.  Gishikinpommixin  tulagishatten  lohxin. 

10.  Owini   linowi   wemoltin   pehella   gahani   pom- 
mixin  nahiwi  tatali  tulapin. 

11.  Amanganek  makdopannek  alendyumek  mitzi- 

12.  Manitodasin    mokol    wichemap    palpal    payat 
payat  wemichemap. 

13.  Nanaboush  nanaboush  wemimokom  winimokom 
linnimokom  tulamokom. 

14.  Linapima  tulapima  tulapewi  tapitawi. 

15.  Wishanem   tulpewi  payaman   tulpewi  poniton 

16.  Kshipehelen    penkwihilen    kwamipokho     sita- 
walikho  maskanwagan  palliwi  palliwi. 


1.  Pehella  wtenklennapewi  tulapewini  poakwiken 
wolikgun  wittank  akpinep. 

2.  Topanakpinep  wineu  akpinep  kshakan  akpinep 
thupin  akpinep. 

3.  Lowankwimink    wulaton    wtakan    tihill    kelik 
meshatang  siliewak. 

4.  Chintanes  sin  powallessin  peyachik  wikhichik 
(elowichik)   pokwihil. 

5.  Eluwichitanesit   eluwi   takauwesit   elowichiksit 
elowichik  delsinewo. 

6.  Lowaniwi  napaniwi  shawaniwi  wunkeniwi  elo- 
wichik apakachik. 


7.  Lumowaki    lowanaki   tulpanaki    elowaki   tula- 
piwi  linapiwi. 

8.  Wemiako     yagawan     tendki     lakkawelendam 
nakapowa  wemi  owenluen  atam. 

9.  Akhokink  wapaneu  wemoltin  palliaal  kitelen- 
dam  aptelendam. 

10.  Pechimuin  shakowen  nungihillan  lusasaki 
pikihil  pokwihil  akomenaki. 

11.  Nihillipewin  komelendam  lowaniwi  wemiten 
chihillen  weniaken. 

12.  Namesuagipek  pokhapokhapek  guneunga  wap- 
lanewa  ouken  waptuwemi  ouken. 

13.  Amokolon  nallahemen  agunouken  pawasinep 
napasinep  akomenep. 

14.  Wihlamok  kicholen  luchundi  wematam  akomen 

15.  Witehen  wemiluen  wemaken  nihillen. 

16.  Nguttichin  lowaniwi  nguttachin  wapaniwi 
agumunk  topanapek  wulliton  epannek. 

17.  Wulelemil  w'shakuppek  wemopannek  hakh- 
sinipek  kitahikan  pokhakhopek. 

18.  Tellenchen  kitta  pakkinillawi  wemoltin  guti- 
kuni  nillawi  akomen  wapanawaki  nillawi  ponskan  pon- 
skan  wemi  olini. 

19.  Lowanapi  wapanapi  shawapani  lanewapi  takak- 
wapi  tumewapi  elowapi  powatapi  wilawapi  okwisapi 
danisapi  allumapi. 

20.  Wemipayat  guneunga  shinaking  wunkenapi 
chanelendam  payaking  alloelendam  kowiyey  tulapaking. 


1.  Wulamo  linapioken  manup  shinaking. 

2.  Wapallananewa   sittamaganat  yukepecchi  we- 


3.  Akhomenis  michihaki  wellaki  kundokanup. 

4.  Angomelchik  wlowichik  elmusichik  menalting. 

5.  Wemilo  kolawil  sakima  lissilma. 

6.  Akhopayat  kihillalend  akhopokho  askiwaal. 

7.  Showihilla  akhowemignadhaton  mashipokhing. 

8.  Wtenkolawil  shinaking  sakimanep  wapagokhos. 

9.  Wtenk  nekama  sakimanep  janotowi  enolowin. 

10.  Wtenk  nekama  sakimanep  chilili  shawaniluen. 

1 1.  Wokenapi  nitaton  wullaton  apakchikton. 

12.  Shawaniwaen  chilili  wapaniwaen  tamakwi. 

13.  Akolaki  shawanaki  kitshinaki  shabiyaki. 

14.  Wapanaki  namesaki  pemipaki  sisilaki. 

15.  Wtenk  chilili  sakimanep  ayamek  weminilluk. 

16.  Chikonapi  akhonapi  makatapi  assinapi. 

17.  Wtenk  ayamek  tellen  sakimak  machi  tonanup 

18.  Wtenk  nellamawi  sakimanep  langundowi  akol- 

19.  Wtenk  nekama  sakimanep  tasukamend  shaka- 

20.  Wtenk  nekama  sakimanep  pamaholend  wulo- 

21.  Sagimawtenk  matemik  sagimawtenk  pilsohalin. 

22.  Sagimawtenk    gunokeni    sagimawtenk    mangi- 

23.  Sagimawtenk  olumapi  leksahowen  sohalowak. 

24.  Sagimaktenk  taguachi   shawaniwaen   minihak- 

25.  Sakimawtenk  huminiend  minigeman  sohalgol. 

26.  Sakimawtenk  alkosohit  sakimachik  apendawi. 

27.  Sakimawtenk  shiwapi  sakinawtenk  penkwonwi. 

28.  Attasokelan  attaminin  wapaniwaen  italissipek. 

29.  Oligonunk  sisilaking  nallimetzin  kolakwaming. 


30.  Wtenk  penkwonwi  wekwochella  wtenk  nekama 

31.  Wtenk  nekama  kwitikwond  slangelendam  atta- 

32.  Wundanushkin  wapanickan  allendyachik  kemi- 

33.  Gunehunga     wetatamowi     makoholend     saki- 
malapon  wemi  nitis  wemi  takawikan  sakimakichwon. 

34.  Wisawana  lappi  mini  madawasin. 

35.  Weminitis  tamanend  sakimanep  nekohatami. 

36.  Eluwiwulit  matamend  wemi  linapi  nitis  payat. 

37.  Wtenk  wulitma  maskansisil  sakimanep  w'tama- 

38.  Machigokloos    sakimanep    waphicholen    saki- 

39.  Wingenund    sakimanep    powatenep    gentika- 

40.  Lapawin  sakimanep  wallama  sakimanep. 

41.  Waptipatit  sakimanep  lapi  lowashawa. 

42.  Wewoattan  menatting  tumaokan  sakimanep. 

43.  Nitanonep  wemi  palliton  maskansini  nihillinep. 

44.  Messissuwi  sakimanep  akowini  pallitonep. 

45.  Chitanwulit  sakimanep  lowanuski  pallitonepit. 

46.  Alokuwi  sakimanep  towakon  pallitonep. 

47.  Opekasit  sakimanep  sakhelendam  pallitonepit. 

48.  Wapagishik  yuknahokluen   makeluhuk   wapa- 

49.  Tsehepicken  nemasipi  nolandowak  gunehunga. 

50.  Yagawanend  sakimanep  tallegewi  wapawulla- 

51.  Chitanitis  sakimanep  wapawaki  gotatainen. 

52.  Wapalendi  pomisinep  talagawil  allendhilla. 

53.  Mayoksuwi  wemilowi  palliton  palliton. 

54.  Talamatan  nitilowan  payatchik  wemiten. 


55.  Kinehepend  sakimanep  tamaganat  sipakgamen. 

56.  Wulatonwi  makelima  pallihilla  talegawik. 

57.  Pimokhasuwi    sakimanep    wsamimaskan    tale- 

58.  Tenchekentit  sakimanep  wemilat  makelinik. 

59.  Paganchihilla  sakimanep  shawananewak  wemi 

60.  Hattanwulaton  sakimanep  wingelendam  wemi 

61.  Shawanipekis  sakimanep  gunehungind  lowani- 
pekis  talamatanitis. 

62.  Attabchinitis     gishelendam     gunitakan     saki- 

63.  Linniwulamen  sakimanep  pallitonep  talamatan. 

64.  Shakagapewi  sakimanep  nungwi  talamatan. 


1.  Wemilangundo  wulamo  talli  talegaking. 

2.  Tamaganend  sakimanep  wapalaneng. 

3.  Wapushuwi  sakimanep  kelitgemen. 

4.  Wulitshinik  sakimanep  makdopannik. 

5.  Lek/zzhitin  sakimanep  wallamolumen. 

6.  Kolachuisen  sakimanep  makeliming. 

7.  Pematalli  sakimanep  makelinik. 

8.  Pepomahenem  sakimanep  makelaning. 

9.  Tankawon  sakimanep  makeleyachik. 

10.  Nentigowe  shawanowi  shawanaking. 

1 1.  Kitchitamak  sakimanep  wapahoning. 

12.  Onowutok  awolagan  wunkenahep. 

13.  Wunpakitonis     wunshawononis     wunkiwikwo- 

14.  Pawanami  sakimanep  taleganah. 

15.  Lokwelend  sakimanep  makpalliton. 


16.  Lappi  towako  lappi  sinako  lappi  lowako. 

17.  Mokolomokom  sakimanep  mokolakolin. 

18.  Winelowich  sakimanep  lowishkakiang. 

19.  Linkwekinuk  sakimanep  talakachukang. 

20.  Wapalawikwan  sakimanep  waptalegawing. 

21.  Amangaki  amigaki  wapakisinep. 

22.  Mattakohaki  wapawaki  mawulitinol. 

23.  Gikenopalat  sakimanep  pekochilowan. 

24.  Saskwihanang  hanaholend  sakimanep. 

25.  Gattawisa  sakimanep  winikaking. 

26.  Wemi  lowichik  gishikshawipek  lappi  kichipek. 

27.  Makiawip  sakimanep  lapihaneng. 

28.  Wolomanep  sakimanep  maskekitong. 

29.  Wapanand  tumewand  waplowan. 

30.  Wulit  pallat  sakimanep  piskwilowan. 

3 1 .  Mahongwi  pungelika  wemi  nungwi. 

32.  Lappi  tamanend  sakimanepit  wemi  langundit. 

33.  Wemi  nitis  wemi  takwiken  sakima  kichwon. 
34.-5.     Omitted  in  Original  Mss. 

36.  Kichitamak  sakimanep  winakununda. 

37.  Wapahakey  sakimanep  Sheyabian. 

38.  Elangomel  sakimanep  makeliwulit. 

39.  Pitinumen  sakimanep  unchihillen. 

40.  Wonwihil  wapekunchi  wapsipayat. 

41.  Makelomush  sakimanep  wolatnamen. 

42.  Wulakeningus  sakimanep  shawanipalat. 

43.  Otaliwako  akowetako  ashki  palliton. 

44.  Wapagamoshki  sakimanep  lamatanitis. 

45.  Wapashum  sakimanep  talegawunkik. 

46.  Mahiliniki  mashawoniki  makonowiki. 

47.  Nitispayat  sakimanep  kipemapekan. 

48.  Wemiamik  weminitik  kiwikhotan. 

49.  Pakimitzen  sakimanep  tawanitip. 

50.  Lowaponskan  sakimanep  ganshowenik. 


51.  Tashawinso  sakimanep  Shayabing. 

52.  (bis)     Unamini  minsimini  chikimini. 

53.  Epalahchund  sakimanep  mahingwipallat. 

54.  Langumuwi  sakimanep  mahongwichamen. 

55.  Wangomend  sakimanep  ikalawit. 

56.  Otaliwi  wasiotowi  shingalusit. 

57.  Wapachikis  sakimanep  shayabinitis. 

58.  Nanachihat  sakimanep  peklinkwekin. 

59.  Wonwihil  lowashawa  wapayachik. 

60.  Langomuwak  kitohatewa  ewinikiktit. 


Note  1.  "Miquon,"  Their  Elder  Brother,  was 
Perm's  name  among  the  Delawares. 

— Indian  Biography,  Vol.  II,  pg.  120. 
B.  B.  Thatcher,  1832. 
Penn's   personal   name    among   the    Delaware   was 
"Onas,"  this  word  signifying  a  pen.    Quakers  were  the 
"Children  of  Onas." 

Note  2.  "Yanokies,"  a  name  applied  to  New  Eng- 
enders by  the  natives,  meaning  "silent  men"  and  from 
the  Mais-Tchusaeg  or  Massachusetts  language  (hence 
Algonkin)  according  to  Washington  Irving  in  his 
"Knickerbockers  History  of  New  York,"  page  120. 
Others  have  derived  the  name  from  Iroquoian.  The 
British  made  fun  of  the  name  because  it  was  of  native 
origin  and  are  said  to  have  been  first  to  set  it  to  an  old 
tune  and  jingle.  The  Americans  accepted  the  challenge 
and  proudly  bore  it  as  in  keeping  with  their  Indian 

Note  3.      "White  Eyes,"  and  Congress.  "The  journal 
of  December,  1775,  records  the  interview  of  Congress 
with  the  father" — Captain  White  Eyes. 
— Thatcher's  Indian  Biography,  Vol.  II,  page  135. 

"Resolved,  That  Mr.  Morgan  (Tamanend  prob- 
ably) be  empowered  and  requested  to  continue  the  care 
and  direction  of  George  White  Eyes  for  one  year,  and 
that  the  Board  of  the  Treasury  take  order  for  the  pay- 



ment  of  the  expenses  necessary  to  carry  into  execution 
the  views  of  Congress  in  this  respect." 

—Resolution  of  June  20,  1785.  (Id). 

Note  4.  Penn's  Treaty  at  Sakimaxing  (modern 
Shakamaxon)  the  place  of  kings,  is  described  by  his 
biographer,  William  Hepworth  Dixon,  who  says  West's 
picture  of  Penn  is  very  unlike  and  gives  a  word  picture 
of  Penn's  Landing  with  Tamanend  included  in  both 

— "Biography  of  Penn,"  by  Dixon, 
pages  212,  213.  Also  199. 

Note  5.  Penn's  Indian  Policy,  described  by  Dixon, 
his  biographer,  and  also,  "Grahames  Colonial  History," 
Vol.  I,  page  15. 

Note  6.  Tamanend  III.  Interesting  speculation 
and  research  on  will  be  found  in  "The  Grave  of  Tama- 
nend," by  H.  C.  Mercer,  in  "Magazine  of  American 
History"  for  June- July,  1893. 

Note  7.  "Place  of  Caves" — The  Wakon  Tebee  or 
burial  cave  here  mentioned,  is  referred  to  by  Jonathan 
Carver  at  page  63  of  his  journal  as  30  miles  below  the 
Falls  of  St.  Anthony  and  obviously  ancient  because  it 
had  carved  inscriptions  inside  it  and  was  known  to  the 
Indians  as  the  place  where  ancient  Siouan  chieftains 
were  buried.  Arapaho  and  Cheyenne  tradition  point 
to  the  location  as  a  starting  point  in  their  western 
spread  from  Minnesota  at  about  the  same  time.  The 
Arapaho  northern  branch  retained  the  Calumet,  ear  of 
corn  and  Turtle  figurine,  as  the  elder  or  parent  stem 
of  the  Inunaina  or  "our  own  people"  (their  own  name 


for  themselves).  The  southern  branch  became  identi- 
fied with  the  Siksika  Confederacy  against  the  Sioux, 
through  the  Atsina  tribe.  The  Cheyenne  or  Dzitsi-istas 
("our  people")  spread  from  Minnesota  into  South 
Dakota  and  in  addition  to  the  mention  of  St.  Anthony's 
Falls,  their  tradition  speaks  of  a  River  of  the  Turtles. 
They  were  an  agricultural  people  and  lived  once  in 
permanent  houses.  These  two  Algonkin  nations,  I 
think,  clearly  show  that  they  were  engaged  in  the  Great 
Snake  War  and  have  some  memory  of  the  introduction 
of  agriculture  and  the  settlement  at  the  Place  of  Caves 
where  St.  Paul  and  Minneapolis  now  stand.  The  Sioux 
of  Carver's  time  admitted  the  Cheyenne  (their  name 
for  the  Dzitsi-itsa)  occupied  the  upper  Mississippi 
region  before  them.     Minneapolis  still  has  some  caves. 

Note  8.  Wisawana  means  Yellow  River.  It  is  in 
Northeastern  Iowa,  opposite  Prairie  Du  Chien  on  the 
Eastern  side  of  the  river.  This  place,  at  which  French 
and  American  fur  traders  established  outposts,  was 
wTidely  known  as  an  Indian  market  for  which  the  Yellow 
River  Valley  was  the  camping  place  for  tribes  from  the 
remotest  tributaries  of  the  Mississippi.  See  "Carver's 
Travels,"  pages  50,  51.  Wisawana  played  an  important 
role  in  the  Black  Hawk  war. 

Note  9.  "Nectam."  In  describing  the  Rainy  River 
portion  of  the  water  road  of  Indians  and  fur  trappers, 
MacKenzie  mentions  a  trading  post  some  four  or  five 
miles  from  the  Rainy  Lake's  western  outlet,  where 
people  from  Montreal  met  those  from  the  Athabaska 
country.  On  the  north  side  of  the  river  on  a  high  bank 
there  was  a  trading  post  and  this  was  also  the  location 
the  Indians  told  him,  of  the  residence  of  the  "Nectam," 


first  chief  or  Sachem  of  all  Algonkin  tribes,  inhabiting 
the  different  parts  of  the  country.  He  is  by  distinction 
called  Nectam,  which  implies  personal  pre-eminance. 
Here  also  the  elders  met  in  council  to  treat  of  war  or 

— "Voyages  from  Montreal,  Through  the  Continent  of 
North  America  to  the  Frozen  and  Pacific  Oceans 
in   1789   and    1793,"  by  Alexander   MacKenzie. 
Vol.  I,  page  xciii. 
The  modern  "Nectam"  and  the  term  "Nekohtahami" 
of  the  Walam  Olum  as  title  for  Tamanend  I,  are  ob- 
viously identical. 

Note  10.  Opekasit,  the  King  who  "fought  in  sad- 
ness," is  evidently  alluded  to  in  the  story  Benjamin 
Sutton  had  from  the  Delawares  among  whom  he  was 
prisoner.  His  relation  to  Beattie  in  1737,  not  only  sets 
the  date  by  Delaware  count,  of  their  arrival  on  the 
Delaware  River,  but  says  that  there  was  an  ancient 
King  of  the  Lenape  in  the  far  west  who  divided  his 
"empire"  between  two  sons,  who  quarrelled  about  it. 
One  of  the  sons — who  could  be  no  other  than  Opekasit 
— rather  than  fight  with  his  brother,  voluntarily  went 
east  with  his  following  and  the  Delaware  finally  came 
to  the  Atlantic.  The  story  despite  its  garbled  version  as 
Sutton  remembered  it,  seems  to  include  East  Villagers' 
record  too. 

Sutton  and  others  have  understood  the  Delaware  to 
assert  there  were  three  divisions  of  the  Lenape,  one  on 
the  Atlantic,  one  East  and  the  other  West  of  the  Missis- 
sippi. Heckewelder  and  others  have  mentioned  this 
Sutton  story.  Its  narrator  evidently  gave  Sutton  the 
expanded  or  detailed  oration  of  which  the  mnemonic 
Walam  Olum  serves  as  a  topical  index  as  it  were. 


Note  11.  Fish  River.  The  Walum  Olum  word  is 
Nameas  Sipu  and  obviously  this  is  not  Mississippi.  One 
of  the  two  locations  mentioned  in  this  book  is  probably 
correct.  Personally  the  logical  place  is  the  one  on 
Nemakan  River,  a  small  tributary  of  Rainy  River.  The 
solemnity  and  importance  of  the  event,  would  have 
required  the  intervention  of  the  Midewiwan  itself. 

Note  12.  Moundbuilders.  As  protection  from  high 
water,  mounds  seem  to  have  had  a  natural  development 
in  the  Mississippi  Valley,  though  this  is  not  their  origin 
or  chief  purpose.  Few  of  them  were  over  four  or  five 
feet  high  and  mostly  for  defensive  earthworks,  burial 
places,  or  residence.  Some  however  were  90  feet  or 
more  high.  Others  of  obviously  symbolic  and  religious 
nature.  The  Eastern  Siouans  were  the  principle  mound- 
builders  of  the  Upper  Ohio  Valley  so  far  as  ceremonial 
and  symbolic  mounds  go.  The  Cherokee  undoubtedly 
built  many  of  them  however.  The  fortified  mounds 
were  joint  work  of  the  Talega  allies. 

Algonkins  held  these  mounds  and  their  builders  in 
some  awe.  The  Southern  Indians  told  early  whites 
"there  is  fire  in  those  mounds"  of  the  Ohio  Valley. 

This  expression  is  very  clearly  explained  by  reference 
to  the   careful   report   on   the   Gordon  Town   Site  in 
— 41st  Report  of  the  Bureau  of  American  Ethnology. 

Here  ceremonial  fires  were  found  to  have  been  built 
at  various  stages  of  the  erection  of  this  mound  in  the 
center  of  a  town  estimated  to  have  had  1250  population. 
The  King's  house  was  probably  on  top  of  it  as  the  usual 
temple  was  at  its  base,  with  the  only  door  opening  on 
the  mound.    The  fires  in  the  mound  referred  to  the  Sun 


as  symbol  of  the  Great  Spirit  and  the  Temples  were 
much  like  those  of  the  Natchez;  whose  King  was  called 
"Great  Sun."  DeSotos  expedition  encountered  "Sun 
Worshippers"  opposite  them,  across  the  Mississippi 
when  the  expedition  was  on  the  west  side.  The  Gordon 
Town  Site  I  should  say  was  an  ancient  Siouan  village. 

Note  13.  Father  Gravier,  one  of  the  Jesuit  Fathers, 
relates  that  the  Indians  told  him  they  knew  of  the 
former  inhabitants  of  the  Illinois  territory  where  the 
Walam  Olum  places  the  Allegewi,  as  Akensis  Indians 
and  that  their  ancestors  had  driven  these  Akensis  out  so 
that  they  fled  across  the  Mississippi.  This  is  sufficient 
to  identify  them  with  the  Allegewi  of  the  Walam  Olum 
and  with  the  modern  Omaha,  Quapaw,  Kaw  and  others 
who  fled  up  the  Missouri  or  down  stream  or  up  stream 
from  its  mouth.  DeSoto's  party  encountered  the 
Quapaw  and  perhaps  other  Siouan  tribes  then  living  in 
fortified  towns,  with  mounds  and  cornfields  "as  far  as 
the  eye  could  reach,"  much  as  their  ancestors  had  done 
east  of  the  Mississippi. 

Note  14.  Cherokees.  The  Talega  of  the  Walam 
Olum.  They  told  Kentuckians  of  mounds  they  built  in 
the  Upper  Ohio  Valley  "with  fire  in  them."  See  Note 
12.  They  helped  the  Mengwae  reconquer  the  Ohio 
Valley,  generally  supposed  to  have  occurred  between 
1650  and  1700,  though  as  we  show  elsewhere,  the  war 
began  fifty  years  earlier. 

The  Delaware  called  the  Cherokee,  "Kittuwa,"  from 
their  chief  war  town  in  Georgia.  This  was  indeed  one 
of  their  own  names  for  themselves. 

They  fought  DeSoto  in  1539  together  with  their 
allies  of  the   "Coweta"   confederacy.     They  invaded 


Virginia  1658  and  sought  peace  with  the  Delaware 
1768.  Curiously  enough  this  latter  fact  does  not  seem 
to  have  impressed  our  own  historians  as  one  of  the  prob- 
able consequences  of  the  Algonkin  League  recapturing 
the  Ohio  Valley  from  the  Iroquoians  as  they  certainly 
must  have  done  to  allow  Tecumseh  and  before  him, 
Pontiac  to  rule  it  as  King.  History  is  generally  silent 
as  to  this  recapture  of  the  ancient  Talega  land,  because 
the  whites  never  knew  or  cared  anything  about  it. 
Instead  they  treated  the  Algonkins  as  mostly  "subject" 
to  the  Iroquois  and  made  treaties  accordingly.  The 
Cherokee  obligingly  acknowledged  all  Iroquois  claims 
in  this  respect. 

Note  15.  Buffalo  in  the  Ohio  Valley.  The  Ken- 
tucky geologist,  Jillson,  estimated  their  arrival  not  later 
than  1000  years  ago.  The  Buffalo  shaped  the  civiliza- 
tion of  nations.  Hodge's  "Book  of  Indians"  shows  that 
they  came  annually  into  Canada,  splitting  north  and 
south  of  "The  Lakes"  region  of  Winnipeg,  to  the  west 
and  never  to  the  east  of  these  lakes.  There  was  the 
"Buffalo  Land"  of  the  Walam  Olum  before  the  Great 
Snake  War,  and  doubtless  one  of  the  causes  of  this  war. 
The  Buffalo  traces  were  followed  by  the  Indian  as  the 
whites  built  railroads  on  the  Indians  trails  first  used  by 
the  pioneers.  Agriculture  could  not  survive  in  the  path 
of  the  Buffalo. 

If  Jillson  is  correct,  the  Buffalo  must  have  been  driven 
into  the  Ohio  Valley  by  the  Great  Drouth  recorded  by 
the  Walam  Olum. 

Note  16.  Talega  War.  A  detailed  account  of  the 
causes  leading  to  this  war,  gathered  from  the  Delaware 
themselvese,    will    be    found    in    John    Heckewelder's 


"History  of  Indian  Nations,"  at  page  144  and  follow- 

The  Allegewi  or  Tallegewi  are  somewhat  confused 
with  the  Cherokee  (Tsalika)  and  the  author  seems  to 
suspect  that  Fish  River  (Namaes  Sipu)  must  be  the 
Mississippi,  but  his  conclusions  are  not  of  importance 
compared  with  the  facts  gathered  from  the  Indians, 
which  corroborate  the  Walam  Olum  in  every  respect. 
In  fact  the  story  was  but  an  extension  of  the  mnemonic 
symbols  of  the  Red  Score.  The  Mengwae  of  this  story 
are  the  Talamatan  of  the  Rafinesque  translation.  They 
followed  the  Lenape  eastward,  coming  to  the  Missis- 
sippi River  somewhat  higher  up  than  did  the  Lenape. 
The  Talega  King  first  granted  and  then  refused  to 
allow  permission  for  the  Lenape  to  cross  the  river, 
"treacherously"  killing  the  advance  guard  that  did 
cross.  The  Mengwae  were  notified  and  came  as  allies 
to  participate  in  the  ensuing  war.  Heckewelder's  ver- 
sion indicates  the  Mengwae  were  given  the  northern 
half  of  the  conquered  territory.  As  the  Walam  Olum 
does  not  seem  to  indicate  this  but,  the  reverse,  I  have 
let  it  stand  that  way.  Either  the  translation  of  the 
Walam  Olum  is  in  error  or  Heckewelder's  own  conclu- 

Note  17.  Fortified  Towns.  Good  description  of 
an  ancient  illustration  may  be  found  in  "Two  Prehis- 
toric Villages  in  Middle  Tennessee,"  by  Edward  Myers. 
Vol.  41  A.B.E.  The  palasaded  wall  of  posts,  watling 
and  adobe,  with  semi-circular  towers  every  55  feet 
corresponds  with  modern  structures  seen  by  the  Spanish. 
The  great  war  town  of  Mabilla  (ancient  form  of 
Mobile)  that  De  Soto  destroyed,  is  another  good  refer- 
ence to  study. 


Note  18.  Firebuilders'  discovery  was  how  to  shoot 
fire  arrows  into  the  inflamable  structures  of  the  fortified 
towns.  This  is  still  an  Indian  practice  in  later  history 
down  into  pioneer  times. 

Note  19.  "Talega"  that  fled  South  in  the  Talega 
war  included  of  course  the  Talega  proper  or  Cherokee, 
for  the  South  had  been  their  home  for  many  centuries 
while  their  advent  into  the  Upper  Ohio  perhaps  dated 
back,  not  so  far.  They  are  supposed  to  have  come  into 
the  State  of  Kentucky  about  the  beginning  of  the  Chris- 
tian era. 

The  Eastern  Siouans  that  were  driven  across  the 
Ohio  to  their  kinsmen  in  Kentucky  and  Tennessee  and 
among  their  allies  the  Cherokee,  probably  included  the 
ancestors  of  the  Catawba,  Tutelo,  Biloxi,  Ofo,  Saponi 
and  various  others  found  scattered  throughout  the 
South  by  Europeans.  In  some  cases,  like  the  Biloxi  of 
Louisiana,  they  formed  separate  though  small  com- 
munities entirely  surrounded  by  other  nations. 

Note  20.  Red  vs.  White  Indians.  Native  tales 
concerning  "white  Indians"  started  many  early  his- 
torians speculating  as  to  European  visitors  in  America 
prior  to  1492  and  finally  gave  birth  to  a  widely  believed 
theory  that  the  Welsh  Prince  Madoc  had  reached  the 
Ohio  Valley  and  was  responsible  for  the  "white  Indians', 
who  were  defeated  in  a  great  war  by  the  Algonkins. 
However,  the  native  tales  of  white  vs.  red  in  this  war, 
had  to  do  with  Algonkins  vs.  Talega  (Cherokees  and 
Eastern  Siouans).  The  Siouans  especially  were  much 
lighter  in  color  than  the  swarthy  Algonkins,  as  they  are 
today.     America  has  had  as  many  races  and  colors 


within  its  borders  in  prehistoric  times  as  any  other 

The  "Welsh"  theory  was  doubtless  helped  consider- 
ably by  the  various  Welshmen,  like  Roger  Williams, 
and  even  Dr.  Ward,  who  aided  us  to  the  Walam  Olum 
story.  Probably  many  Indians  did  know  some  Welsh 
words  from  them.  Also  if  Prince  Madoc  reached 
Florida,  Mexico  or  other  southern  point  with  his  two 
expeditions,  he  may  have  introduced  some  Welsh  words. 
But  it  is  highly  improbable  that  he  ever  knew  anything 
of  the  Ohio.  He  would  have  had  to  proceed  immedi- 
ately from  his  ship  to  the  scene  of  conflict  to  have  any 
part  in  it. 

Note  21.  Eclipse  of  Sun,  1451.  For  discussion  of 
this  event  and  calculation  of  same,  see  Canfield's 
"Legends  of  the  Iroquois." 

Note  22.  Migrations — Charlevoix  in  his  work  on 
the  origin  of  Indians,  relates  that  Pere  Grellon,  Jesuit 
Father,  encountered  a  Huron  woman  on  the  plains  of 
Tartary,  who  had  been  sold  from  tribe  to  tribe  until 
she  passed  from  Behring  Strait  into  Central  Asia.  He 
recognized  her  the  story  goes.  This  is  cited  in  "Myths 
and  Legends,  The  North  American  Indians,"  by  Lewis 
Spence,  1914,  and  I  have  seen  the  story  elsewhere. 

Also  there  is  the  story  of  a  wampum  belt  among 
North  American  Indians,  obviously  telling  of  Spanish 
cruelties  in  the  South,  that  is  very  ancient,  and  spoken 
of  in  several  works,  names  of  which  I  do  not  recall. 

These  are  good  illustrations  of  aboriginal  ability  to 
get  about  this  continent  without  the  aid  of  horses  or 
automobiles.  Indian  legends  are  full  of  adventure 
tales  of  heroes  going  to  far  places  and  coming  back. 


Those  acquainted  with  their  historical  land  and  water 
trails,  would  have  no  doubt  of  the  quite  widespread 
trading  and  peaceful  visiting  that  went  on  before  the 
arrival  of  Europeans. 

Note  23.  Old  Wampum  Belt.  There  is  a  story  of 
a  traveller  seeing  Indians  in  the  Ohio  Valley  with  an  old 
wampum  belt  telling  the  tale  of  strange  beings  of  great 
cruelty  in  the  far  south.  He  had  no  doubt  it  came  from 
either  Mexico  or  some  southern  state  then  coping  with 
the  Spaniards,  and  marvels  that  such  distances  should 
be  no  bar  to  communication  of  news  between  the  natives. 
I  have  lost  my  note  on  this  as  to  authority  for  the  story, 
though  ethnologists  seem  to  know  it  well.  Messages 
by  wampum  belts  seem  to  have  been  nearly  as  common 
to  the  aboriginals  as  letters  or  telegrams  are  with  us. 
As  Cherokees  and  Muskoki  would  scarcely  have 
troubled  to  send  such  a  message  to  Algonkins,  we  must 
assume  either  that  the  belt  was  sent  by  the  Shawnee 
back  to  the  parent  body  or  else  that  it  was  a  message  to 
Iroquois  from  the  Cherokee,  their  kinsmen  and  allies 
and  probably  concerned  DeSoto  or  D'Aylon  excursions 
from  Florida. 

Note  24.  Cross  of  the  Mide.  See  Note  34.  In- 
spection of  the  pictures  of  priests  found  in  mounds, 
graves,  and  elsewhere,  over  a  wide  territory  and  among 
different  aboriginal  peoples,  usually  reveals  some  form 
of  this  cross.  Modern  Indians  still  use  it.  The  earliest 
Spanish  discovered  it  in  Central  America  as  well  as 
North  America.  Missionaries  supposed  it  evidence  of 
previous  influence  of  Christianity.  However  the  cross 
of  the  four  cardinal  points  is  the  most  ancient  sign  of 
priesthood,  the  world  over  but  especially  in  America. 


On  the  copper  plate  found  in  Etowah  mound, 
Georgia,  and  now  in  the  U.  S.  National  Museum,  is  a 
picture  of  a  priest,  Siouan  or  Cherokee.  A  good  en- 
graving of  it  is  to  be  found  in  several  works  (Hartley 
Burr  Alexander  reproduces  it  in  "Mythology  of  All 
Races,  North  American,"  1916).  This  is  very  similar 
to  pictures  of  priests  or  "medicine  men"  to  be  found  in 
many  old  works  relating  to  the  Indians  where  the  apron 
or  apron-like  garment  sometimes  has  a  hand  on  it,  the 
priest  bears  a  rattle,  "medicine  bag"  and  peace  pipe  or 

Note  25.  Degiha  Confederacy.  That  this  arbitrary 
modern  ethnological  division  of  the  Siouans  who  once 
lived  east  of  the  Mississippi  is  nearer  right  than  might 
be  supposed.  It  includes  the  Omaha,  Ponca,  Quapaw, 
Osage  and  Kansa  as  presumably  all  one  body  long  ago, 
as  in  fact  they  were.  The  Jesuit,  Father  Gravier,  was 
told  by  the  Illinois  Indians  that  the  Akensis  (Siouans) 
fled  across  the  Mississippi  and  there  divided,  some  stay- 
ing on  the  Missouri,  others  going  North  or  South. 
According  to  the  Siouans  themselves,  those  who  went 
north  were  called  up-stream  people  (Omahas)  and 
who  went  south,  down-stream  people  (Quapaws).  lam 
inclined  to  think  that  the  middle  group,  which  has  been 
classified  as  the  Chiwere  tribes,  the  Iowa,  Oto  and 
Missouri  were  of  the  same  original  eastern  stock  and 
instead  of  separating  from  the  Winnebagos,  the  latter 
separated  from  them  somewhere  on  the  upper  Missouri. 
The  Winnebagos  tradition  points  to  their  having  lived 
further  north  than  the  whites  found  them  (Winnebago 
Lake,  Wisconsin)  and  it  seems  possible  they  may  have 
been  around  Winnipeg  Lake  in  Canada.  It  would  be 
interesting  if  they  received  their  name  from  this  lake 


while  they  were  among  their  conquerors.  The  name  is 
said  to  mean  "dirty  water"  and  of  course  is  not  what 
they  called  themselves. 

Note  27.  Washington  Irving's  description  of  the 
Half  Moon's  voyage  up  the  Hudson  is  worth  reading  in 
this  connection.  He  came  in  contact  with  Iroquois 
Indians  and  made  them  friendly.  The  Dutch  settlers 
who  followed  shortly  afterward,  attacked  Delaware 
Indians  in  Communipaw,  N.  J.,  without  knowing  or 
caring  who  they  were  except  that  they  were  savages. 
But  the  Iroquois  would  naturally  exult  over  the  fact 
and  become  even  more  friendly  with  the  Dutch. 

Note  26.  For  Champlaine's  aid  to  the  Algonkin 
League,  see  "Voyages  and  Discoveries,"  by  Samuel  de 

Note  28.  Mohawks  humbled.  In  Jesuit  Relations 
we  find  a  story  that  the  Algonkins  "greatly  humbled" 
the  Iroquoian  Mohawks,  driving  them  out  of  New  Eng- 
land in  1600.  This  corresponds  so  closely  to  the  Walam 
Olum  version  of  King  Langomuwi  "scaring"  the  Meng- 
wae,  that  it  serves  as  a  correction  to  the  original  tenta- 
tive chronology. 

What  follows,  bears  out  this  view  exactly.  The 
Walam  Olum  comes  to  a  speedy  end,  obviously  with 
war  on  a  large  scale  as  the  cause.  King  Langomuwi 
seems  not  to  have  survived  his  victory  which  he  prob- 
ably did  not  lead  in  person.  We  find  the  Unami  or 
Turtle  Tribe,  (of  which  he  was  head  because  the  Kings 
were  chosen  from  that  tribe)  moved  to  Indiana  this 
very  same  year  of  1600,  according  to  modern  history. 
His   successor   Wangomend    ("Saluted")    found   foes 


over  on  the  Scioto  at  the  same  time  the  Otali  or 
Cherokee  were  giving  trouble  in  the  Allegheny  moun- 
tains. In  other  words  the  Iroquois,  Cherokees  and 
Chickasaws  ("Coweta")  had  launched  their  allied 
strength  against  the  Algonkin  League  in  a  war  em- 
bracing half  the  continent,  resulting  eventually  in  re- 
capturing the  Upper  Ohio  Valley. 

The  Unamis  settled  on  Yellow   River  in  Indiana, 
where   they  were   seen  afterward  by  the   Frenchman 
— "Journal  of  a  Voyage,"  by  Pierre  Francis  Charlevoix. 

This  Yellow  River  was  probably  named  after  the 
Wisawana  of  the  first  Tamanend.    See  Note  8. 

Note  29.  Hochelega,  the  ancient  capitol  of  the 
Wendats  (Talamatans  of  the  Walam  Olum)  was 
destroyed  in  1601,  immediately  following  the  defeat  of 
the  Iroquois  in  New  England  and  probably  as  a  retalia- 
tion. According  to  Lescarbot,  the  invasion  of  Canada 
was  undertaken  by  8000  Iroquois  and  the  country  above 
the  St.  Lawrence  was  laid  waste,  in  which  condition 
Champlaine  found  it  in  1603. 

Note  30.  Coweta  was  a  tribe,  a  confederacy  and  a 
town.  Use  of  the  word  in  the  Walam  Olum  refers  to 
the  Confederacy,  especially  to  the  Chickasaw  allies  of 
the  Cherokee.  Whites  generally  regarded  the  "Coweta" 
as  the  tribes  of  Muskoki  stock.  Coweta  was  chief  war 
town  of  the  lower  Creeks  and  in  later  history  the  Con- 
federacy was  spoken  of  as  the  Creek  Confederacy.  At 
one  time  it  seems  to  have  embraced  most  if  not  all  of  the 
Muskoki  race.  The  Natchez  were  included  in  the 
Confederacy,  which  fought  the  Spanish  and  later  the 
English  and  the  Americans.     Coweta  town  was  on  the 


Chattahoochie  River  in  Mississippi.  The  Delaware 
were  friendly  with  the  Coweta  as  late  as  1748,  accord- 
ing to  J.  L.  Long's  "Early  Western  Travels,"  Vol.  2, 
page  43.  The  Coweta  and  other  tribes  of  which  it 
claimed  the  advantage  in  age,  came  from  west  of  the 
Mississippi  apparently  from  the  region  of  the  Rockies. 
For  research  work  on  Coweta  see  "Religious  Beliefs 
and  Medical  Practices  of  the  Creek  Indians,"  by  Jno. 
R.  Swanton,  in  42nd  Report  B.A.E. 

Note  3 1 .  General  George  Rogers  Clark  was  told  by 
a  Piankashaw  chief  in  1782,  that  the  last  great  battle 
of  the  war  between  the  red  and  white  Indians  was  fought 
at  Sand  Island,  on  the  Ohio  River,  at  Louisville,  Ky., 
whither  the  remnants  of  the  enemy  (of  the  Algonkins) 
had  fled.  Thousands  were  killed  and  the  bones  cover- 
ing the  Island  were  supposed  to  be  visable  at  low  water 
mark,  though  no  one  reports  having  seen  them.  What 
Clark  and  others  learned  of  the  Talega  war  was  pretty 
fully  reported  in  John  Filson's  "History  of  Kentucky." 
It  all  fits  into  the  Walam  Olum  record  except  the  specu- 
lations of  the  white  pioneers.  ...  on  Welsh  Indians, 
Moundbuilders,  etc. 

Note  32.  General  Anthony  Wayne  was  called 
Black  Snake  probably  with  reference  to  the  Black  Snake 
of  the  mysteries  of  the  Midewiwan  mentioned  in  verse 
14,  Book  I,  of  the  "Red  Score."  They  were  com- 
plimenting an  enemy  with  a  very  powerful  Manito. 





Note  33 

All  Indians  in  the  United  States  are  now  citizens 

By  act  of  June  2,  1924,  Congress  conferred  citizen- 
ship upon  the  remaining  third  of  our  Indian  population, 
not  already  citizens.  The  act  in  no  way  affects  the 
Indians'  right  to  tribal  property,  nor  are  the  restric- 
tions upon  this  property  removed. 

The  following  information  as  to  the  present  location 
of  all  the  tribes  still  under  government  supervision,  is 
furnished  by  the  Bureau  of  Indian  Affairs  as  of  March, 
1934.  The  names  of  most  of  these  tribes  are  modern, 
including  many  common  terms  invented  by  white  men. 

For  convenience  in  locating  the  principle  nations  and 
tribes  descended  from  those  mentioned  in  the  Walam 
Olum,  we  have  appended  a  list  in  which  reference  is 
made  the  table  furnished  by  the  Bureau  of  Indian 


1 .     Arizona  : 

a.      Colorado  River  Agency : 

Chemehuevi,    Kawia,    Cocopa,    Majave 



b.  Fort  Apache  Agency : 

Chiricahua,    Coyotero,    Mimbreno,    Mo- 
gollon  Apache. 

c.  Havasupai  Agency : 


d.  Hopi  Agency: 

Hopi,  Navajo. 

e.  Kaibab  Subagency: 

Kaibab,  Paiute. 

f.  Leupp  Agency: 


g.  Phoenix  School : 

Apache,  Pima. 

h.     Pima  Agency: 

Papago,  Maricopa,  Pima. 

i.       San  Carlos  Agency: 

Arivaipa  Chiricahua,  Coyotero,  Mim- 
breno, Mogollon,  Mojave,  Pinal,  San 
Carlos,  Tonto,  Yuma  Apache. 

j.       Sells  Agency: 

k.      Southern  Navajo  Agency: 

1.      Truxton  Canon  Agency: 

m.    Western  Navajo  Agency: 
Hopi,  Navajo,  Paiute. 

2.     California  : 

a.  Fort  Yuma  Agency: 

Cocopah,  Yuma. 

b.  Hoopa  Valley  Agency : 

Hupa,  Klamath,  Redwood,  Saia. 


c.  Mission  Agency: 

Mission  Indians. 

d.  Sacramento  Agency: 

Chukchansi,  Maidu,  Mewuk,  Cold 
Springs,  Clear  Lake,  Concow,  Little 
Lake,  Noamlaki,  Pit  River,  Porno, 
Potter  Valley,  Redwood,  Wailaki,  Yuki, 
Paiute,  Wintum,  etc. 

3.  Colorado: 

a.      Consolidated  Ute  Agency: 

Capote,  Moache,  Wiminuche  Ute. 

4.  Florida  : 

a.     Seminole  Agency: 

5.  Idaho: 

a.  Couer  d'Alene  Agency: 

Couer  d'Alene,  Kalispel,  Kutenai,  Spo- 

b.  Fort  Hall  Agency: 

Bannock,  Shoshoni. 

c.  Fort  Lapwai  Agency: 

Nez  Perce. 

6.  Iowa  : 

a.     Sac  and  Fox  Sanatorium: 

Potawatomi,  Winnebago,  Sac  and  Fox  of 
the  Mississippi. 

7.  Kansas: 

Haskell  Institute 

(Potawatomi  Subagency)  : 


Chippewa,  Munsee,  Iowa,  Kickapoo,  Sac 
and  Fox  of  Missouri,  Prairie  Band  of 

8.  Michigan: 

a.      Mackinac  Subagency: 

L'Anse  and  Vieux  Desert  Band  of  Chip- 
pewa of  Lake  Superior,  Ontonagon  Band 
of  Chippewa  of  Lake  Superior,  scattered 
bands  of  Ottawa  and  Chippewa. 

9.  Minnesota: 

a.  Consolidated  Chippewa  Agency: 


b.  Pipestone  Agency: 

Mdewakanton  Sioux. 

c.  Red  Lake  Agency: 

Red  Lake  and  Pembina  Chippewa. 

10.  Mississippi: 

a.      Choctaw  Agency : 

1 1 .  Montana  : 

a.  Blackfeet  Agency: 

Blackfeet,   Blood,   Piegan. 

b.  Crow  Agency: 


c.  Flathead  Agency: 

Flathead,  Kutenai. 

d.  Fort  Balknap  Agency: 

Gros  Ventre,  Assiniboin. 

e.  Fort  Peck  Agency: 

Assiniboin,  Brule,  Santee,  Teton,  Hunk- 
papa,  Yanktonai  Sioux. 


f.  Rocky  Boy's  Agency : 

Rocky  Boy's  Band. 

g.  Tongue  River  Agency: 

Northern  Cheyenne. 

12.  Nebraska: 

a.  Santee  Subagency: 

Santee  Sioux. 

b.  Ponca  Subagency: 

Yankton  Sioux,  Ponca. 

c.  Winnebago  Agency : 

Omaha,  Winnebago. 

13.  Nevada: 

a.  Carson  School : 

Paiute,  Shoshoni. 

b.  Moapa  River  Subagency: 

Chemehuevi,   Kaibab,   Paiute,   Shivwits. 

c.  Walker  River  Agency: 


d.  Western  Shoshone  Reservation  : 

Paiute,  Shoshoni. 

14.  New  Mexico: 

a.  Eastern  Navajo  Agency : 


b.  Jicarilla  Agency: 

Jicarilla  Apache. 

c.  Mescalero  Agency: 

Mescalero  and  Mimbreno  Apache 

d.  Northern  Navajo  Agency: 


e.  Santa  Fe  School  Jurisdiction: 



f.  Southern  Pueblo  Agency: 


g.  Zuni  Agency : 


15.  New  York: 

a.     New  York  Agency : 

Cayuga,  Oneida,  Onodaga,  Seneca,  Tus- 
carora,  St.  Regis. 

16.  North  Carolina: 

a.      Cherokee  Agency: 

17.  North  Dakota: 

a.  Fort  Berthold  Agency: 

Arikara,  Gros  Ventre,  Mandan. 

b.  Fort  Totten  Agency : 

Assiniboin,    Cuthead,    Santee,    Sisseton, 
Yankton,  Wahpeton  Sioux. 

c.  Standing  Rock  Agency: 

Blackfeet,  Hunkpapa,  Upper  and  lower 
Yanktonai  Sioux. 

d.  Turtle  Mountain  Agency: 

Pembina  Chippewa. 

18.  Oklahoma: 

a.  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho  Agency: 

Southern  Arapaho,  Southern  Cheyenne. 

b.  Five  Civilized  Tribes: 

Cherokee,   Chickasaw,    Choctaw,   Creek, 
Seminole,  Delaware. 


c.  Kiowa  Agency: 

Apache,  Comanche,  Delaware,  Kiowa, 
Ioni,  Caddo,  Waco,  Tawakoni,  Wichita. 

d.  Osage  Agency: 


e.  Pawnee  Agency: 

Kaw,  Tonkawa,  Lipan,  Otoe  and  Mis- 
souri,  Pawnee,  Posca. 

f .  Quapaw  Agency  : 

Ottawa,  Quapaw,  Seneca,  Eastern  Shaw- 
nee, Kickapoo,  Wyandot. 

g.  Shawnee  Agency: 

Absentee  Shawnee,  Kiowa,  Iowa,  Ton- 
kawa, Mexican  Kickapoo,  Citizen  Pota- 
watomi,  Ottawa,  Sac  and  Fox  of  the 

19.     Oregon: 

a.  Klamath  Agency: 

Klamath,  Modoc,  Paiute,  Pit  River, 
Walpapi,  Yahuskin  band  of  Snake 

b.  Salem  School: 

Calapooya,  Clackama,  Cow  Creek,  Lak- 
miut,  Marys  River,  Molala,  Nestucca, 
Rogue  River,  Santiam,  Shasta,  Turn- 
water,  Umpqua,  Wapato,  Yamhill, 
Fourth  Section  Allottees. 

c.  Siletz  Subagency: 

Alsea,  Coquille,  Kusa,  Kwatami,  Rogue 
River,  Skoton,  Shasta,  Siuslaw,  Tututni, 
Umpqua,  etc. 

d.  Umatilla  Agency: 

Cayuse,  Umatilla,  Wallawalla. 


e.     Warm  Springs  Agency: 

Des  Chutes,  John  Day,  Paiute,  Tenino, 
Warm  Springs,  Wasco. 

20.  South  Dakota: 

a.  Cheyenne  River  Agency: 

Blackfeet  Sioux,  Miniconjou,  Sans  Arcs, 
Two  Kettle  Sioux. 

b.  Crow  Creek  Agency : 

Lower  Brule,  Lower  Yankton  Sioux. 

c.  Flandreau  School: 


d.  Pine  Ridge  Agency: 

Brule  and  Oglala  Sioux. 

e.  Rosebud  Agency: 

Loafer,  Miniconjou,  Northern  Oglala, 
Two  Kettle,  Upper  Brule,  Wazhazhe 

f.  Sisseton  Agency: 

Sisseton  and  Wahpeton  Sioux. 

g.  Yankton  Agency: 

Yankton  Sioux. 

21.  Utah: 

a.  Consolidated  Ute  Agency : 


b.  Paiute  Agency: 


c.  Uintah  and  Ouray  Agency: 

Goshute,  Pavant,  Uintah,  Yampa,  White 
River  Ute,  Grand  River  Uncampahgre 
Tabeguache  Ute. 


22.  Washington: 

a.  Colville  Agency: 

Colville,  Spokane. 

b.  Spokane  Agency : 


c.  Kalispel  Reservation : 


d.  Neah  Bay  Agency: 


e.  Taholah  Agency : 

Chinook,  Clatsop,  Chehalis,  Muckel- 
shoot,  Nisqualli,  Puyallup,  Skwawks- 
namish,  Steilacoomamish,  etc.,  Quaitso, 
Quileute,  Qunaielt,  Shoalwater,  Clallam, 
Skokomish,  Twana,  Squapin. 

f.  Tulalip  Agency : 

Clallam,  Dwamish,  Etakmehu,  Lummi, 
Snohomish,  Suquamish,  Swiwamish, 
Muckelshoot,  Nooksak  Nisqualli,  Puyal- 
lup, Skwawksnamish,  Suiattle,  Steilacoo- 
mamish, Tulalip. 

g.  Yakima  Agency : 

Klikitat,  Paloos,  Topinish,  Wasco, 

23.  Wisconsin  : 

a.  Hayward  Agency: 

Lac  Courts  Oreille  band  of  Chippewa  of 
Lake  Superior. 

b.  Keshana  Agency : 

Menominee,  Oneida,  Stockbridge  and 

c.  Lac  de  Flambeau  Agency : 

Lac  du  Flambeau  and  La  Pointe  bands  of 


Chippewa  of  Lake  Superior,  Rice  Lake 
band  of  Chippewa,  Bad  River  Chippewa, 
Wisconsin  band  of  Potawatomi. 
d.     Tomah  Agency : 

24.     Wyoming: 

a.      Shoshone  Agency: 

Northern    Arapaho,    Eastern    band    of 


(Numbers  on  margin  refer  to  "Present  Location" 
just  given) . 

Arapahoes — Algonkins.  Native  name,  Inunaina, 
"Our  Own  People."  Descendants  of  followers 
of  King  Chilili,  seventh  century.     Northern  or 

parent  branch  now  at 24 

Southern  branch  at 18a 

Blackfeet — Algonkins.  Also  followed  King 
Chilili.  In  modern  history,  their  Kainah,  Blood, 
Piegan  and  Siksika  tribes  appear  as  the  Siksika 
Confederacy,  allied  with  Arapaho  Atsina  and 

Chippewa  Sarsi.    Now  at 11a 


Cheyenne — Algonkins.  So  called  by  the  Sioux. 
Their  own  name  however  is  Dzitsi-ista,  "Our 
People."  They  are  descendants  of  King  Penk- 
wonwi,  ninth  century,  who  brought  his  people 


back  from  the  drouth  stricken  west  to  the 
"pleasant  plain"  around  St.  Paul  and  Minne- 
apolis, and  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony.  From 
these  Falls,  Cheyenne  spread  again  into  South 

Northern  branch  now  at 11 

Southern  branch  now  at 18a 

Delaware — Descendants  of  the  Lenape  or  "First 
Men."  In  modern  times  they  have  called  them- 
selves by  such  names  as  Pohegan,  Mohegan, 
Opuhnarke,  according  to  various  authorities,  in 
addition  to  Lenape.  They  are  said  to  have  begun 
their  return  west  of  the  Mississippi  from  the 
time  the  whites  first  came  to  America.  Accord- 
ing to  their  count,  they  reached  the  Delaware 
river  about  1397  A.D.  It  was  from  the  Turtle 
Tribe,  later  known  as  Minsi,  that  the  King  of 
the  League  was  chosen. 

The  Minsi,  modern  corruption  Munsee,  now  at ....  7 


Remaining  Delawares  at 18b 


Fox — Algonkin.  Native  name  Muskwakiwak. 
The  Chippewas  who  fought  them,  called  them 
Utugaming,  "People  of  the  Other  Shore,"  hence 
the  French  "Outagamies."  In  modern  times 
the  French-Indian  enemies  of  the  Fox,  referred 
to  them  as  "Robbers,  Murderers"  which  is  the 
term  used  in  the  Walam  Olum  for  those  who  pre- 
cipitated the  first  rebellion  against  the  League 
resulting  in  the  Great  Snake  War  in  the  seventh 
century.    In  modern  times  their  ancient  alliance 


with   Sioux  and  Iroquois  has  been   frequently 

maintained.    They  are  now  at 6 

Kigkapoo — Algonkin.  Native  name,  Kiwigapawa, 
"He  Stands  About,"  or  "Alert."  More  closely 
related  to  the  Miami-Menomini-Shawnee  group 
than  to  the  Ottawa-Chippewa-Pottawotomi  or 
"3-Fires"  group.  They  were  allies  of  the  Fox 
and  Sac  and  the  Siouan  Iowa  tribes  in  modern 

times.     Now  at   7 

Menominee — Algonkin.     Descendants    of    the 
western   group    allied   with   the   Tawa   of  the 
Walam  Olum  in  rebellions  against  the  league. 

Now  at 23b 

Ottawa — The  Tawa  of  the  Walam  Olum  and 
originally  the  same  with  the  Odjibwa  or  Chip- 
pewa. They  were  chief  guardians  of  the  Mide- 
wiwan  among  the  Algonkins,  and  it  is  from  this 
group  of  Algonkins  we  get  most  of  our  informa- 
tion about  the  ancient  mysteries.    Now  at 8 

Pottawotomi — Descendants  of  the  Tawa  and  in 
modern  times  one  of  the  "Three  Fires."     The 
French  called  the  Sacs  "The  Fire  People,"  in- 
stead of  the  Pottawotomi  who  rightfully  are 

named  so.     Now  at 6 



Sacs — Properly  "Sauks."  Their  native  name  how- 
ever is  Osakiwug  or  "People  of  the  Outlet"  or 
else  "People  of  the  Yellow  Earth."  They  were 
Michiganders,  known  in  modern  times  as 
"Muscodesh"  or  Macinac  people,  and  called  by 
the  French,  the  Fire  People.  They  were  friends 
and  allies  of  the  Fox,  Mascoutens;  enemies  of 
Ottawa  and  the  Hurons  in  modern  times.  Ap- 
parently they  were  the  first  Algonkin  inhabitants 
of  Michigan  before  the  Lenape  migration.  Now 

at    6 


Shawnees — Same  as  the  Shawnees  who  left  the 
parent  stem  and  went  south,  according  to  the 
Walam  Olum,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  the 
Nanticokes  going  about  the  same  time.  The 
name  Shawnee  means  simply  "Southerners." 
The  Nanticokes  went  to  Maryland  and  the 
Shawnee  penetrated  even  into  Florida,  though 
always  keeping  their  war-town  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Scioto  River  in  Ohio,  where  they  probably 
crossed  over  on  their  original  southern  migra- 
tion.    Now  at 18f 


Cherokee — Iroquoian.  Native  name  Tsalika  or 
Snake  Like  Ones.  Descendants  of  the  Talega 
of  the  Walam  Olum  in  which  they  later  appear 
as  Otali  or  mountain  Cherokee  (as  distinguished 
from  the  Elati  or  lower  Cherokee) .  In  modern 
times  they  sought  peace  with  the  Delaware  as 
late  as  1768.     Their  allies  the  "Coweta"  were 


allied  with  the  Delaware  twenty  years  earlier 

and  probably  long  before.    Now  at 16 


Chickasaw — Muskoki.  Same  as  the  Coweta  of 
the  Walam  Olum.     Now  at 18b 

Choctaw — Muskoki  and  therefore  included  in 
the  term  for  this  stock,  "Coweta"  used  in  the 
Walam  Olum.  They  were  originally  from  west 
of  the  Mississippi,  probably  from  Mexico,  and 
one  people  with  the  Chickasaw.  In  modern  times 
they  have  acted  as  American  scouts  in  the  Upper 

Ohio  Valley.    They  are  now  at 10 


Creeks — Muskoki.  The  true  Coweta  Confeder- 
acy was  probably  inspired  by  the  Shawnee.  It 
fought  DeSoto  on  his  journey  to  the  Mississippi. 
Tecumseh,  himself  an  Algonkin,  succeeded  in 
allying  them  with  the  Great  League  while  he 
was  King.     Now  at 18b 

Iroquios — Iroquoian.  They  were  the  Mengwae 
of  the  Walam  Olum.  The  true  council  fire  of 
their  League  is  today  in  Canada,  though  New 
York  Iroquois  still  retain  their  traditions  and 
form  of  government. 

Oneidas  are  now  at 15 


Senacas  now  at 15 

Others  now  at   15 

Seminole — Muskoki.  The  Shawnees  contacted 
them  in  Florida  and  at  times  were  friendly  with 

them.     Now  at    3 


Sioux — The  "Snakes"  of  the  Walam  Olum.    The 


Algonkins  named  all  enemies  "Snakes"  or  adders 

but  the  Sioux  were  the  particular  "Snakes"  of 

legend,  prehistoric  enemies. 

There  were  Eastern  and  Western  Sioux. 

With    the    Western    Sioux    or    Nadowe-isiw 

(whence  the   French  "Sioux"),   otherwise  the 

Dakota  tribes,   the  Lenape   fought  the  Great 

Snake  War. 

The   Dakotah  and  probably  mixed  tribes  are 

now  at    9b 

The  Eastern  Sioux  who  were  driven  across  the 
Mississippi  by  the  Lenape  and  their  allies,  are 
represented  today  by  various  tribes  often  at  war 
with  the  Dakota  in  modern  times.     East  and 
West  did  not  seem  to  mix  well,  though  they  are 
akin.     The  Easterners  were  agricultural  almost 
entirely  and  probably  allied  with  the  Cherokees 
for   at   least   2000   years,    at   which   time   the 
Cherokees  are  estimated  to  have  come  into  Ken- 
tucky,   according    to    Williard    Rouse    Jillson, 
geologist.    The  coming  of  buffalo  into  Kentucky 
a   thousand   years   later   is   supposed   to   have 


greatly  changed  the  Eastern  Siouan  civiliza- 
tion. The  following  descendants  of  the  East- 
ern Siouan  fugitives  from  the  Ohio  Valley  are 
now  at  the  places  indicated. 

Ponca  and  Omaha   12b 

Oto,  Missouri,   Kaw 18e 

Wichita    18c 

Iowa 7 


Osage   ....  1 8d 

Quapaw  (Kapaha  of  DeSoto)    18f 

Mandan    17a 

Winnebago 6 


Wyandottes — Iroquoian.  The  native  name  is 
Wendat,  corrupted  by  the  French,  who  also 
nicnamed  them  "Hurons."  The  Wendats 
formed  their  own  League  about  1400  A.D. 
They  are  the  descendants  of  the  Talamatans  of 
the  Walam  Olum.    Now  at     18f 


State  1930  1920 

Alabama  465  405 

Arizona  43,727  32,989 

Arkansas  408  106 

California  19,212  17,360 

Colorado  1,395  1,383 

Connecticut  162  159 

Delaware  5  2 


District  of  Columbia 




























































New  Hampshire 



New  Jersey 



New  Mexico 



New  York 



North  Carolina 



North  Dakota 















Rhode  Island 



South  Carolina 



South  Dakota 

















West  Virginia 














Total 332,397 244,437 

Estimate  of  the  Indian  population  in  1492  has  placed 
the  number  at  less  than  a  million — 846,000.  This  is 
based  upon  the  assumption  that  constant  wars  (and  the 
observation  of  white  men  never  led  them  to  think 
otherwise)  tended  to  thin  out  much  increase  of  popula- 
tion; that  so  many  villages  seen  in  a  locality,  contained 
so  many  houses  and  supported  so  many  families.  West 
of  the  Mississippi  was  long  regarded  as  too  wild  to 
maintain  any  real  civilization. 

The  truth  is  that  there  were  probably  several  millions 
of  inhabitants  in  America  in  1492. 

In  1865  the  census  estimate  was  294,574. 

"Rum"  and  guns  and  diseases  following  the  advent 
of  the  whites  speedily  brought  down  the  population. 

Note  34.  Midewiwan.  The  Cross  was  its  symbol, 
referring  to  the  four  cardinal  points,  the  four  layers  of 
earth  and  the  four  layers  of  heaven  as  symbolized  by 
the  8  degrees.  The  Otter  was  given  the  degrees  by 
Nanaboush  after  the  animal  made  its  appearance  at 
the  four  quarters  and  came  to  the  center  of  the  earth  to 
be  initiated.  This  I  take  to  indicate  both  the  univer- 
sality of  the  mysteries  and  the  special  claim  of  the 
Ottawa  to  have  received  the  degrees  directly  from  this 


ancient  hero.  There  were  two  Algonkin  rites,  in  which 
a  shell  was  used  to  symbolize  the  power  "shot"  into  the 
candidate  from  the  mouth  of  a  medicine  bag.  The 
Otter  rite  was  said  to  have  been  most  popular  with 
Southern  Algonkins  and  the  Megis  Shell  with  the 
Northerners.  In  the  Megis  sheU  rite  the  big  Megis 
played  the  part  of  the  Otter  in  reference  to  appearing 
and  disappearing  at  the  four  quarters.  The  temples  or 
odges  of  the  Midewiwan  were  called  Midewigans. 
The  mysteries  included  knowledge  of  healing,  history, 
statecraft  and  religion. 

— References,  "Complete  History  of  Ottawa  and  Chip- 
pewa Indians  in  Michigan,"  by  Chief  Mackade- 
penessy,  (Black  Hawk)  or  Andrew  J.  Blackbird, 

"Hoffman's  Paper  on  the  Midewiwanm,"  1885,  in 
7th  Smithsonian  Report. 

"Chippewa  Music,"  in  Bulletins  45,  53  B.A.E. 

"Chippewa  Customs,"  in  Bulletin  86  B.A.E. 

Note  35.  Wakon-Kitchewa,  said  to  be  identical 
with  the  Algonkin  mysteries  by  Jonathan  Carver. 
"Travels  Through  Interior  Parts  of  North  America," 

Note  36.  West.  "Going  West"  is  no  less  an 
aboriginal  than  a  modern  American  idea  of  death. 
There  is  the  setting  sun.  The  Sun  expressed  the  Great 
Spirit  as  Giver  of  Life.  So  the  trails  to  the  Happy 
Hunting  ground  generally  ran  west.  Heroes  some- 
times journeyed  there  and  came  back  if  they  could  avoid 
being  crushed  between  the  sky  and  the  land  at  the 
horizon  where  the  movements  of  the  land    (a  great 


turtle)  caused  the  two  to  gape  wide  at  times.  Most  of 
the  Southern  tribes  had  traditions  of  coming  from  the 
west  to  east  of  the  Mississippi.  They  also  generally 
believed  they  came  from  the  ground  or  underneath  the 
earth,  while  the  northern  tribes  generally  believed  they 
came  from  above.  The  Siouans,  even  in  the  South, 
were  of  those  who  came  from  above.  Origin  of  the 
tribes  "from  beneath  the  earth,"  points  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains  or  to  cave  dwellings  or  perhaps  even  pueblo 

Note  37.  "Little  Old  Men."  The  Siouans  alone 
appear  to  have  a  mystical  tradition  assigning  a  more 
human  origin  to  their  religious  organization.  Their 
Little  Old  Men  did  much  thinking  and  speculating, 
finally  agreeing  upon  an  organization  to  preserve  knowl- 
edge about  nature.  They  became  Holy  Ones.  The 
"Nika  Xube"  of  the  Sioux  seems  to  be  about  the  same 
idea  as  the  Chickasaw  had  of  Holy  Ones  of  long  ago 
who  followed  the  Xobe  path  (of  the  Milky  Way).  It 
is  possible  that  the  ancestors  of  the  Sioux  really  origin- 
ated the  Priest  House,  called  by  them  Wakon-Kitchewa 
and  by  the  Algonkins,  Midewiwan. 

Note  38.  Universal  Mysteries — Future  re- 
search should  encounter  rich  rewards  in  comparing 
certain  key  words  of  the  various  Indian  mysteries,  not 
for  their  literal  meaning,  but  as  evidences  of  antiquity 
of  the  mysteries  themselves.  Thus  the  theory  of  Adair 
as  to  Jewish  lost  tribes,  accounting  for  American 
Indians,  absurd  as  it  seems,  rested  upon  his  observation 
of  Indian  rituals  in  which  a  sacred  syllable  was  oft  re- 
peated that  sounded  like  the  Jewish  Jah  or  Jehovah. 
Pioneer  Masonic  writers  likewise  were  fond  of  alluding 


to  the  supposed  fact  that  the  Indians  had  a  name  for 
God  that  was  undoubtedly  the  same  as  the  ancient 
J.H.V.H.  of  other  nations  (pronounced  variously  Jah, 
Ea,  Jove,  etc.). 

The  Sioux  did  indeed  have  that  syllable  as  Ea  and 
the  Muskoki  races  likewise.  In  various  guises  it  may  be 
found  among  many  Indian  nations.  But  it  is  explained 
by  modern  research  as  quite  aboriginal  and  having 
nothing  to  do  with  inhabitants  of  other  continents. 

Again  the  word  Kitche  means  literally  different 
things  to  Siouan,  Algonkin,  Hopi,  Iroquois.  But  it 
appears  in  their  mystical  lore  in  connection  with  much 
the  same  ideas.  Also  the  word  Nika,  is  found  among 
different  mysteries,  probably  with  different  literal  mean- 
ings but  connected  with  the  idea  of  Brotherhood.  The 
same  idea  of  spiritual  power  is  expressed  by  entirely 
different  words  among  the  same  nations  mentioned. 
The  Sun  is  common  to  all  the  mysteries.  But  only  the 
Sioux  call  it  Tonga  Wakon  (Carver,  page  380).  The 
thought  rather  than  the  terms  describing  mystery 
things  among  the  Indians,  leads  one  to  the  conclusion 
that  they  had  a  "universal  religion." 

Note  39.  Temples.  Early  historians  complained 
that  the  Indians  had  no  temples  save  those  of  the  far 
south.  The  Midewiwan  was  crude  indeed,  a  temporary 
structure.  But  the  ancient  aboriginals  did  have  temples, 
attached  to  mounds  as  evidenced  by  the  one  carefully 
described  in  the  article  on  the  Gordon  Town  Site  in 
Tennessee.    See  Note  12  for  reference. 

In  all  these  more  stable  temples  the  evidence  points 
to  a  similarity  to  the  famous  one  at  Natchez  so  carefully 
described  by  the  French. 


Note  40.  Witchcraft.  See  "Annals  of  Witchcraft 
in  New  England,"  by  Samuel  G.  Drake,  1869,  for 
several  instances  of  conflict  between  Indian  and  Massa- 
chusetts "religion."  The  Indians  were  taught  in  the 
mysteries  to  abhor  witchcraft  but  the  whites  regarded 
their  Medi  priests  as  wizards  and  necromancers  with- 
out regard  to  whether  the  magic  was  black  or  white ! 
Finally  the  whites  passed  a  law  prohibiting  the  practice 
of  such  devil  worship.  What  the  Indians  saw  the 
whites  doing  to  their  own  people,  did  not  give  them  any 
great  confidence  and  this  law  finished  the  loyalty  of  the 
"praying  Indians"  forever. 

Note  41.  Wampum,  being  made  with  two  hands 
had  a  certain  sanctity  when  employed  in  recording 
sacred  things.  The  open  hand  and  especially  two  hands, 
were  peace  signs.  They  still  are  in  the  universal  sign 
language.  Ancient  hieroglyphics  or  Indian  pictures 
sometimes  show  the  open  hand  on  a  priest's  dress.  So 
many  were  the  uses  of  wampum  that  its  manufacture 
was  constant  when  there  was  leisure.  There  could 
never  be  too  much  wampum,  whether  as  a  medium  of 
exchange  (money)  or  for  treaty  making,  ritual  pur- 
poses or  otherwise.  As  money,  the  New  Englanders 
adopted  it  with  the  Indians  and  paid  them  in  beads, 
collecting  what  they  thought  were  taxes  in  fathoms  of 

Tecumseh,  King  of  the  League  in  his  day,  adopted 
the  white  man's  idea  of  money  in  part,  issuing  bits  of 
bark  or  paper  for  supplies,  stamped  with  the  Otter  of 
the  Midewiwam.  Every  one  accepted  this  money  be- 
cause of  its  character  which  no  Indian  could  repudiate 
without  shame. 


Abnaki,    183. 

Acorns,    31. 

Adams,    John,    145. 

Adams,    John    Quincy,    145. 

Adders    (Enemy    Sioux),    172. 

Africa,  49. 

Agriculture,  52,  53,  160,  169,  173, 

Ahookassong  (Iroquois  Chief),  37. 

Akensis    (Allegewi),   67,  203. 

Akomenep  (Snake  Island),  47, 

Akhonapi    (Snake  People),   161-6. 

Alabama,  82,   111,  205,  228. 

Albigenses,   70. 

Alfred  The  Great,   53. 

Algonquin  Stock,  10,  17,  22,  26, 
35,  40,  43,  45,  48,  52,  58,  60,  63, 
74,  79,  81,  86,  89-102,  104,  108, 
113,  116,  123,  132,  138,  143,  150, 
152,  198,  201,  203,  208,  212,  233. 

Allegheney  Mountains,  81-2. 

Allegewi  (Eastern  Sioux),  69,  81, 
111,  202,  203,  205. 

Allumpees    (King),   39. 

Andastes,  36. 

Anibikanzibi  (Greenleaf  river), 
65,   131. 

Animie   Watigong,    130. 

Arabian   Nights,   51. 

Arabs,   52. 

Arapahoes,    199,    222. 

Aribis,  130. 

Arizona,  213,  228. 

Arkansas,   81,  228. 

Appaches,    114. 

Appendix  Notes,   198. 

Ashibagisibi    (river),   131. 

Asia,   207. 

Assinapi   (Assiniboines),  166,  172. 

Assiniboines   (Tribe),  47,  62,  167, 

Assiniboine   River    (Canada),  47. 
Athabaska  country,  198. 
Athelstane,   king,    56. 
Atlantic  Division    (See  Delaware 

Division),  87,  196. 
Atlantic  Ocean,  44,   129,   19V. 
Atsina    (Tribe),  200,  223. 
Awaiting   (Cross  Village,  Mich.), 

Aztecs,  49. 


Bacon's  Rebellion,  91. 

Bad   River    (Mich.),    130. 

Bad  Minito,  80,  121. 

Bagdad,  49. 

Bald  Eagle   (See  KINGS),  48. 

Baliol,  John,  71. 

Bawating   (Mich.),  130. 

Baltimore,  Lord,   36. 

Bear  Hills,  165. 

Bear  Manito,  131. 

Beattie,    201. 

Beaver   (tribe),  36,  46,  161-3,  166. 

Beckner,    Col.    Lucien,     149,     150, 

Behring  Strait,  207. 
Big  River   (Tenn.),  104. 
Bi^  Snake    (Maskanako),  44. 
Biloxi   (La.),  206. 
Bjarni   Herjulfson,   61. 
Bjarni  Asbrandon,   63. 
Blackbird   (Chief),  128,  231. 
Blackfeet    (tribe),   30. 
Blackhawk   (chief),  111,  127,  200. 
Black   Snake,  The,    109,    157,   212. 
Black  Prince,  The,  72. 
Blood    (Tribe),   223. 
Boweting    (Mich.),   130. 
Braddock's  Defeat,  98,  100. 
Bradford,    (Gov.),    30. 




Breath  Master,  120. 
Brinton    (publisher),  148. 
Bristol    (Pokonoket),  R.I.,  141. 
British    (See  English),    15-17,   22, 

26,  34,  39,  104,  111,  141,  195. 
Buffalo  Land    (Canada),  46,  166, 

Buffalo  in  Ohio  Valley,  204,  226. 
Bulgaria,    64. 
Byzantine   Empire,    64,    72. 

Cabot,  John,  83,  91,  150,  184. 

California,  214,  228. 

Caliphs  of  Islam,  49. 

Calumet,  12,  15,  32,  50,  59,  68,  79, 

136  et  seq.,  197,  199. 
Calvinists,   86. 
Cambridge   University,   71. 
Canada,    44,    81,    91,    96,    98,    146. 

211,  213. 
Canfield,  Wm.,  207. 
Cape  Henlopen,  33. 
Captain  Pipe,  22. 
Carolina?,  70,  82. 

Carver,  Jonathan,  120,   194,  231. 

Cartier,  Jacques,  91. 

Caspian  Sea,  70. 

Catawbas  (Eastern  Sioux),  36, 
68,   82,   125,  206. 

Catalan,  72. 

Catholics,   86,   87. 

Cave  Dwellers,  45,    160,   232. 

Cave  Place   (Minn.),  169,  199. 

Chakekenapok    (Monster),    157. 

Cherokees  (Talega),  22,  36,  59, 
67,  74,  77,  82,  84,  86,  88,  98-102, 
112.    117,    177,    185,   205-6,   209, 

212,  213,  225. 

Champlain,    Samuel,    92,    95.    210. 

Charlemagne,  51,  52. 
Charlevoix,  207,  211,  212. 
Chaucer,  72. 

Chatahoochie  River    (Miss.),  211. 
Chacunpatan,  60. 
Cheasapeak  Bav,  89. 
Chester   (Pa.),  29. 
Cheyennes    (tribe),    113,   200,  222. 
Chictaghicks,  127. 

Chickasaws  (Coweta).,  36,  82,  84, 

86,   106,   109,   120,  211. 
Chikanapi,  166. 

Chikimini     (Turtle    tribe),     187. 
China,  72,  73,  79. 
Chipiapoos    (Dead   Keeper),   156. 
Chippewa     (tribe)     26,    100,    106, 

108,  120,  123,  129,  231. 
Chiwere  Tribes    (Sioux),  209. 
Churchill   River    (Canada),  47. 
Choctaw    (Coweta),   106,   109. 
Christian  Delawares,   128. 
Christian  Indians,  133. 
Civil  War,  112,  114,  146. 
Clark,   Gen.   George  Rogers,   105, 

106,  212. 
Communipaw  (N.J.),  93,  210,  212. 
Conestogas,  36. 

Connecticut,  97,   135,  145,  228. 
Connoodaghto    (Sakim),   36. 
Congress  of  Colonies,   18,   20,   21, 

22,  105. 
Constantinople,  77. 
Colorado,  215,  281. 
Columbian   Order,   143,    144. 
Columbus,     Christopher,     32,     83, 

Cooper,  James  Fenimore,  4. 
Corn,   52,   168. 
Corn  Planter    (Seneca  Chief),  77, 

124,    125,    126. 
Council    at   Sakimaxon    (Pa.),   32. 
Cortez,  86. 
Cortoreal,  91. 
Coweta,  82,  96,  102,  106,  108,  184, 

203,  211,  212. 
Custer's   Massacre,   113. 
Cranmer,   Archbishop,   86. 
Crecy,  Battle  of,  72. 
Crees    (Tribe),   47. 
Creeks    (tribes),   36,   82,    109,   111, 

146,   185,  211. 
Cross    of   the   Mide,    79,    80,    208, 

Cross  Village   (Mich.),  130. 
Crusades  in  Europe,  66,  70,  71. 


Dakotas      (See      Snakes;      Nado- 
wesiw),  46,  68,  82,  111,  113,  172. 
Dances,  31. 



Danes,  56,  64,  74. 
Dante,  71. 

Deadwood  Region,   131. 
Dead-Keeper,  The,  156. 
De  Ayllon,   17,  98,  208. 
Deghiha  Confederacy,  81,  209. 
Degrees  of  Midiwan,  131. 
Delaware    (State),    97,    141,    145, 

228.  ,4  ti 

Delaware   Division    (i.   e.   Atlan- 
tic),  186. 
Delaware  River,  29. 
Delaware  Tribes,   15,   17,   19,  20, 

22,  25,  26,  27,  32,  35,  37,  38,  40, 

58,  62,  70,  73,  77,  86,  87,  88,  89, 

96,  97,  98,  102,  104-109,  126,  128, 

142,    200,    203,    204,    205,    213, 

222,  224. 
DeMolay,   72. 
Denmark,  73. 

Depression   (890  A.D.),  54. 
De   Soto,   Ferdinand,   82,   88,  203, 

205,  208,  224,  225. 
District  of  Columbia,  228. 
Divine    Light    (Quaker    Manito), 

Division    of    Great    League     (See 

Eastern,  Western,  Atlantic),  66. 
Dragon     (Great    Snake    Manito, 

Drought,   54,   169,   204. 
Dutch,   16,  27,  28,   89,   91,  92,  95, 

96,  97,  98,  99,  150,  212. 
Dzhemanito    (Good   Manito),  42, 

43,  44,  131. 
Dzitsi-Istas       (Cheyennes),      200, 


Eagles   (tribe),  46,  161-163. 
Eastern    Division    Latin    Empire, 

Eastern  Division  Lenape  League, 

66,  69,  73,  79,  81,  99,  108,   131, 

Ea-Wakonda,  21,  233. 
Ea-Wawonake,  122. 
Eclipse   of   Sun    (1451    A.D.),   77, 

Edward  III,  72. 
Egypt,  69. 
Elder  Brother    (Wm.  Penn),  25. 

Elizabeth,  Queen,  86. 

England,  67. 

English    (See  British),   93,  95-98, 

100,  103,  111,  123,  213. 
Eric  The  Red,  60. 
Eries  (See  Lynx,  the  Cat  Nation), 

36,  74,  79. 
Eskimos,  56,  120,  140. 
Etaw  Mound   (Ga.),  209. 

Faguendez,  91. 
Fairies   (Nantines),  43. 
Falls  of  Ohio   (Ky.),  68,  211. 
Falls  of  St.  Anthony  (Minn.),  199, 

Farmers  of  Lenape  ( Wendats  and 

Iroquois),  46. 
Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  82. 
Filson,   John,   211. 
Fire  People   (see  Muscodesh),  48, 

100,  223. 
Fire  Water,  35,  40,  96,  98. 
First  Men   (Lenape),  43. 
Fish  Land    (Canada),   166. 
Fish  River  (Namaesipu  or  Nema- 

kan,  Canada),  63,  65,  140,  173, 

179,   202,   205,   207. 
Fish     Spawn    River     (Greenleaf, 

Minn.),  64. 
Five  Nations    (See   Six  Nations), 

36,  38,  45,  64,  77,  81,  82,  86,  93, 

Florence,  85. 
Florida,  36,  70,  73,  74,  82,  86,  91, 

95,   99,   111,   112,  207,  215,  228. 
Fon  du  Lac   (Wis.),  130. 
Ft.  Ellsworth  Treaty,  113. 
Ft.  Harmer  Treaty,  107. 
Ft.  Johnson  Treaty,  103. 
Ft.  Mcintosh  Treaty,  106. 
Ft.  Stanwix  Treaty,  106. 
Fortified  Towns,  205. 
Forty-Second   Light    Infantry    (N. 

Y.),  146. 

Fox    (See   Outagamies),   48,    111, 
222,  223. 

France,  52,  67,  76,  87,  91. 

Franks,  49. 

Frederick  Barbarossa,  67,  70. 



Freedom    (Tamanend    Ideal)    25, 

26,   12+. 
Freedom  of  Thought,  40. 
French,  15-17,  96-98,  100,  103,  105, 

French-Indian  War,  35,  98. 
Fur  Traders,  57. 

Ganawese    (tribe),  37. 

Ganetha  (the  Siouan  Knowl- 
edge), 122. 

Ganshowenik    (Niagara),   86. 

Garangula,  123,  127. 

Geneva,  85. 

Genghis  Kahn,  70. 

Georgia,  70,  81,  91,  145,  203,  214, 

Germany,  52,  67,  72,  86. 

Geronimo,   113. 

Ghibellines,  70. 

"Going  West,"  231. 

Gordon  Town  Site  (Tenn.),  202, 

Gravier,  Father,  203. 

Great  Elm  of  Penn  and  Tam- 
many, 31,  34. 

Great  Flood,  121,  156. 

Great  League  (Lenape),  17,  46, 
47,  50,  55,  56,  64,  66,  78,  87,  98, 
100,  102,  104,  108,  111,  130,  140, 

Great  Medicine  Society  (See 
Midewiwan;  Wakon-Kit- 

chewa),   119. 

Great  Miami  Treaty,  107. 

Great  Snake  War,  49,  50,  57,  63, 

Great  Spirit  (Kitche-Manito), 
20,  25,  32,  34,  40,  42,  43,  44,  45, 
51,  54,  55,  59,  61,  80,  86,  110, 
111,  112,  115,  116,  117,  120,  121, 
124,  126,  129,  135,  136,  137,  138, 

Greenland,   6,  62. 

Greenleaf  River,  131. 

Grellon,  Father,  207. 

Guelphs,  71. 

Guns,  Indians  get,  40,  96,  98. 

Guttenberg,  75. 

Gyantwahchi  (Chief         Corn- 

planter),  77. 


Half  Moon,  The,  92,  210. 
Hamilton,   Alexander,    143. 
Hapsburgs,  72. 
Heckewelder,   Rev.   Jno.,    58,    128, 

201,  204,  205. 
Harun  Al  Rashid,  51. 
Henry  II,  67,  70. 
Henry  III,  71. 
Henry  IV,  71. 
Henry  VIII,  85. 
Hiawatha     (Iroquois    Hero),    40, 

77,  88. 
Hilini   (Illinois),  185. 
Hobbamock,  133. 
Hochelega   (Wendat  Capitol),  81, 

92,  94,  130,  212. 
Hodenosaunee     ("Long    House"), 

Hoffman  (Midewiwan  authority), 

Hopewell  Treaty,  107. 
Holston  Treaty,  108. 
Holy    Experiment     (Wm.    Penn), 

25,  27. 
Holy     Mysteries      (See     Midewi- 
wan), 138,   139. 
Holy  Ones,  232. 
Holy  League,  87. 
Hominy,   31,   168. 
Honduras,  62. 

Hopi   (Tribes),  120,  123,  233. 
Horn  of  Kingly  Power,  32. 
Hudson  Bay,  98. 
Hudson,  Henry,  92,  210. 
Huguenots,  86. 
Hugh  Capet,  61. 
Huitramanland,    60. 

Huminiend  (King  Hominy),  See 
Kings,  52. 

Hungarians,  71,  72. 

Hurons  (See  Wendats;  Wyan- 
dottes;  Talamatans),  16,  66,  81, 
86,  92,  93,  95,  96,  98,  99,  100, 
174,    185. 

Huron  Woman  in  Tartary,  207. 



Ice  Age,  45. 

Iceland,  53,  55. 

Idaho,  210,  228. 

Illinois,    86,   228. 

Improved  Order  of  Red  Men,  143. 

Imprisonment  for  Debt,  146. 

Incas,  77. 

India,   64,  70. 

Indiana,   228. 

Indianapolis,  70. 

Indian  Museum  (N.  Y.),  146. 

Indian  Population  of  U.  S.,  228. 

Inua    (Eskimo   Manito),   120. 

Inuanaina  (Arrapahoes),  199, 

Inquisition,  30,  70. 

Iowa,  52,  56,  66,  198,  228. 

Iowa   (tribes),  209,  225. 

Irish,  53,  62,  64. 

Iroquois,  16,  17,  35,  37,  38,  39,  44, 
45,  62,  74,  76,  80,  87,  88,  92,  93, 
95,  96-100,  102,  104-106,  113, 
114,  120,  127,  143,  187,  196,  202, 
203,  213,  224,  233. 

Iroquois  League,   36,   127. 

Irving,   Washington,   198,  212. 

Island  of  Nanaboush,   131. 

Italy,  52,  86. 

Jackson,  Andrew,  111,  145. 
Jamestown   (Va.),  89,  93,  95,  140, 

Jefferson,  Thomas,   145. 
Jerusalem,  70. 

Jilson  Willard  Rouse,  204,  225. 
Joan  of  Arc,  73. 
John  of  England,  70. 
John  Huss,  73. 


Kanawas   (tribe),  86,  185. 
Kansas,  115,  209,  215,  228. 
Kaina  (tribe),  222. 
Kansa,  211. 

Katcina   (Hopi  Manito),  120,  122. 
Kapahaw,  68,  225. 
Kaw,  203,  225. 
Kawasitshuiwongk,  130. 
Kentucky,  203,  206,  211,  228. 

Kikapoos,  223. 

Kings  of  Lenape  in  Walam  Olum. 
Begin   pg.    164. 
Alkasohit     (Strong     Man,     869 

A.  D.),  168. 
Alokuwi       (Lean      One,       1063 

A.   D.),   172. 
Ayamek     (Siezer,    644    A.    U.), 

Chilili   (Snow  Bird,  643  A.  D.), 

Chingalsuwi     (Stiff     One,     902 

A.   D.),   165. 
Chitanitis    (String  Friend,   1096 

A.  D.),  174. 
Chitanwulit    (String  and  Good, 

1053   A.  D.),   172. 
Elangomel     (Peacemaker,    1487 

A.  D.),  184. 
Epalachund    (Man   Who   Fails, 

1579   A.    D.),    187. 
Gattawisa    (Getting    Fat,    1397 

A.  D.),  182. 
Ginkenopalat     (Great    Fighter, 
1376  A.  D.),  181. 
Gunitakan     (Long     and     Mild, 

1162  A.  D.),  176. 
Gunokim     (Snow     Father,    816 

A.   D.),   167. 
Hanaholend     (River        Loving, 

1387  A.  D.),  182. 
Hattonwulaton      (Has     Posses- 
sion 1150  A.  D.),  175. 
Humeniend   (Corn  Breaker,  859 

A.  D.),   168. 
Janotowi    (On    Guard,    633    A. 

D.\   165. 
Kenechepend    (Sharp  One,  1106 

A.   D.),   68,    174. 
Kitchitamak     (Big    Beaver,    A. 

D.    1290,    also    1463),   72,    82, 

Kolachuisen     (Pretty    Bluebird, 

1247  A.  D.),  178. 
Kolawil     (Beautiful    Head,    611 

A.  D.),  48,  164. 
Kwitikwond       (Reprover,      923 

A.  D.),  55,   169. 
Langomuwi    (Is   Friendly,   1588 

A.  D.),   187,  210. 



Langundowi      (Peaceable,     761 

A.  D.),  60,  167. 
Lapawin    (Rich   Again,   999   A. 

D.),   171. 
Lekhihiten    (Recorder,    1237   A. 

D.),  70,   178. 
Linkwekinuk    (Look    Out,    1354 

A.   D.),   181. 
Linniwulamen    (Truthful,    1172 

A.  D.),  176. 
Lokwelend     (Walker,    1323    A. 

D.),  180. 
Lowaponskan     (North    Walker, 

1561  A.  D.),  86,  186. 
Machigokloos     (Big    Owl,    967 

A.  D.),  171. 
Makaholend     (Loving,    933    A. 

D.),   55,   56,   170. 
Makelomush     (Much    Honored, 

1507  A.  D.),  85,  184-. 
Makiawip     (Red    Arrow,    14-10 

A.  D.),  182. 
Makolomokom        (Grandfather 

of  Boats,    1333    A.   D.),    180. 
Mangipitak     (Big    Teeth,     826 

A.    D.),    167. 
Maskansisil      (Strong     Buffalo, 

956  A.  D.),  171. 
Matemik     (No    Blood,    804    A. 

D.),  167. 
Messisuwi        (Always       Ready, 

1042  A.  D.)(  172.' 
Nanachihat   (Watcher,   1617  A. 

D.),  188. 
Nitispayat    (Comes    as    Friend, 

1543  A.  D.),  85,  86,  185. 
Olumapi   (Tally  Maker,  837  A. 

D.),   167. 
Onowutok    (The   Seer,   1301   A. 

D.),  72,  179. 
Opekasit  (Oppossum  Like,  1075 

A.  D.),  63,  64,  65,  173. 
Paganchilla  (Breaker  in  Pieces, 

1139  A.  D.),  175. 
Pakimitzen    (Cranberry    Eater, 

1552  A.  D.),  186. 
Pawanarai    (Rich  Down  River, 

1311  A.  D.),  180. 
Pemaholend   (Much  Loved,  783 

A.   D.),   167. 

Peraatalli   (Always  There,  1258 

A.   D.),   178. 
Penkwonwi    (Dried  Up,  890  A. 

D.),    169. 
Pepomahenem       (Paddler      Up 

Stream,  1268  A.  D.),  179. 
Pilwhalen    (Holy   One,    794   A. 

D.),   167. 
Pimikhasuwi    (Stirrer,    1118    A. 

D.),  175. 
Pitinumen      (Makes     Mistakes, 

1498  A.  D.),  82-85,  184. 
Shagapewi    (Just   and    Upright, 

1183  A.  D.),  177. 
Shiwapi   (Saltman,  880  A.  D.), 

Taguchi     (Shivers    With    Cold, 

847  A.  D.),  168. 
Tamaganend   (Pipebearer,  1193 

A.   D.),   177. 
TAMANEND    I    (Affable,   946 

A.    D.),   49,    56,    57,   59,    152, 

170,  201. 
TAMANEND  II  (1451  A.  D.), 

75-82    84    183 
TAMANEND    III,   25,   29,    32, 

33,  37,  38,  39,  40,  41,  59. 
Tankowon    (Little   Cloud,    1280 

A.  D.),  179. 
Tashawinso      (Slow     Gatherer, 

1570  A.  D.),  87,  88,  186. 
Tasukamend     (Not    Black,    773 

A.  D.),  167. 
Tenchekentit   (Firebuilder,  1128 

A.  D.),  68,  175. 
Tumaokan      (Wolf-wise,     1032 

A.  D.),  62,  172. 
Wallama      (Painted,     1010     A. 

D.),    171. 
Wangomend    (Saluted,   1597  A. 

D.),  89,  188,  210. 
Wapachikis    (White  Crab,  1607 

A.  D.),  188. 
Wapaghokos    (White   Owl,   621 

A.  D.),  165. 
Wapagumoshki     (White    Otter, 

1525  A.  D.),  185. 
Wapahakey  (White  Body,  1476 

A.   D.),    183. 
Wapalanewa   (Bald  Eagle,  600 

A.  D.),  164. 



Wapalawikwan   (East  Villager, 

1366  A.  D.),  181. 
Wapashum    (White  Horn,   1534 

A.  D.),  185. 
Wapashuwi   (White  Lynx,  1205 

A.   D.),   178. 
Wapicholen    (White    Bird,    977 

A.   D.),   171. 
Waptipatit    (White   Fowl,   1020 

A.   D.),   171. 
Wenkwochella     (Fatigued,    890 

A.  D.),  5+,  169. 
Winelowich  (Snow-hunter, 

1344,   A.    D.),    181. 
Wingenund     (Willing,    989    A. 

D.),_61,   171. 
Wolomenep    (Painted,    1424   A. 

D.),   182. 
Wulakeningus     (Well    Praised, 

1507  A.  D.),  85,  184. 
Wulitpallat       (Good       Fighter, 

1438  A.  D.),  75,  183. 
Wulitshinik   (Good  and  Strong, 

1215  A.  D.),  178. 
Yagawanend     (Cabin     Builder, 
1885  A.  D.),  173. 
King  Philip's  War,  98. 
King  William's  War,  98. 
Kitahikan   (Atlantic  Ocean),  155. 

(Great  Lakes),  162,  163. 
Kitche  Manito  (See  Great  Spirit). 
Kitchemite    (Great  Nide  or  High 

Priest),  51. 
Kitche-Okeinaw      of      Tammany 

Society,    145. 
Kittuwa,  203. 
Knights  Templar,  72. 
Knisteneau    (tribe),  47. 
Kublai   Kahn,   71. 
Kiwagapawa  (Kikapoos),  223. 
Koguethagechton         (See        Capt. 
White  Eyes),   15. 


Labrador,  45,  61,  62. 
Lakes— Great,   33,  46,   58,   67,   80, 
82,   86,   98,   176. 

Huron,    131. 

Superior,  98,  131,  152,  174. 

Winnebago,   211. 

Winnepec,  204. 

"The  Lakes,"  46,  204. 
Land  Ownership,  20,  28,  30,  32-34, 

51,    60,    61,    109-112,    114,    116, 

124.  127,  128,  129,  135. 
La   Pointe    (Wis.),   130. 
Latimer,  Hugh,  86. 
Latin  Empire  of  East,  71. 
Leagues  East  of  Rockies,  80. 

See  also  Lenape;  Nadoweisiw; 
Iroquois;    Talaga;    Coweta; 
Lenape    (First   Men),    15,   33,   35, 

39,  40,  43,  45,  48,  80,   100,   106, 

114,  119,  120,  131,  149,  158,  164, 

184,  205,  222. 
Lief  Erickson,  63. 
Liberty  Boys,  142  et  seq. 
Lincoln,  Abraham,   111. 
Little    Basswood    Island     (Wis.), 

Little  Old  Men   (Wise  ones),  122, 

Little  Turtle  (Chief),  109. 
Location    of   Indians   Today,   222 

et  seq. 
Lombardy,    51. 
Long,  Jno.  L.,  212. 
Longfellow,   40,    149. 
Longhouse,  40,  77,  88,   144. 
Louis   IX,   71. 
Louis   XI,   83. 
Louisiana,  206. 
Lynx   (Eries),  183. 


Mabila  (Mauville  or  Mobile),  81, 

McBeth,    64. 
Mackenzie,    Alex.,    58,    107,    130, 

Mackinaw,  130. 
Mackinack  Island,  130. 
Madoc,  Prince  of  Wales,  206. 
Madawisin   (la.),  170. 
Madiera  Islands,  73. 
Magicians,  44. 
Maistchusaeg        (Massachusetts), 

Maine,  74,  95,  215. 
Makimani    (See    Manimaki,    Bad 

Manito),  42,  79,   121,   155,   157. 



Makwa    manito    (Bear    Manito), 

Makubimish,   130. 
Mamelukes,  71. 
Man    Manito    (See    Dzhemanito), 

Man   Beings,  42. 
Mandans    (tribe),   225. 
Manhattan,  95. 
Manhood  Suffrage,  146. 
Manimaki    (Bad  Spirit),  43. 
Manito    (Spirit.      Same    as    Inua, 

Katcina,  Oki,   Orenda,  Wakon- 

da,  which  see),  27,   115,   121. 
Manitos       (Creators,      Guardian 

Spirits),  42,  131. 
Manitoulin  Island,  48,  119. 
Mankhe,   122. 
Margaret   of   Norway,    73. 
Markham,    Lt,    of    Penn.,    28. 
Markland,    60. 
Martin  Luther,  86. 
Mary,  The   Catholic,   86. 
Mary  of  Scotland,  86. 
Maryland,    70,    96,    141,    145,   213, 

Mascoutens    (Muscodesh),   48. 
Mashkisibi    (river),   130. 
Maskanako   (Big  Snake),  45,  156, 

157,  159. 
Massacre  of  St.  Bartholomew,  87. 
Massachusetts,   96,    155,   198,   228. 
Massachusetts  Bay  Colony,  97. 
Master  of  Life,  119,  124. 
Mayas,  49,   60,   61. 
Mayapan,    77. 
Medici,  86. 
Medicine  Bag,   121. 
Medicine      Men       (Mide).      See 

Priest    House. 
Meigis    Shell   Rite,    129,   231. 
Menalting  (Grand  Council),  164, 

172,  187. 
Mengwae    (Mingoes),   74,  78,   88, 

183,  187,  203,  205,  212,  224. 
Menomini    (tribe),   224. 
Mexico,    49,    53,    62,    64,    81,    86, 

207,  209,  224. 
Miami  League,  108,  110,  223. 

Michigan,  48,   100,   129,   131,  215, 

223,  228. 
Michikiniqua     (chief),    108. 
Mide    (member   of   Midewiwan), 

133,    180,   171,   236. 
Midewiwan    (Priest    House),   44, 

48,   118,   130,  230,  233,  234. 
Midewigan   (Temple),  132. 
Migrations,  170,  178,  181,  207,  213. 
Minavavana  (Chief),  124. 
Mingoes   (Mengwae  or  Iroquois), 

102,   183. 
Minisabikkang,  130. 
Minisawik,   130. 
Minisinoshkwe  (Nanaboush 

Upper  Home),   132. 
Minsi     (Minisimini    or    Wolves), 

183,  187,  222. 
Minihaking    (Corn  Land),   168. 
Minisipi    (Churchill  River),  47. 
Minneapolis,  54,  222. 
Minnesota,   131,  197,  215,  228. 
Mishenama-Kinagung,    130. 
Mississippi,  213,  215,  228. 
Mississippi  Valley,  56,  58,  60. 
Mississippi  River,   50,   59,   62,   64, 

66,  71,  78,  81,  86,  113,  141,  182, 

199,  201,  204,  211,  222. 
Missouri,   53,   68,   209,  228. 
Missouri  River,  50,  55,  69,  78,  80, 

114,   212. 
Missouri  tribes,  212,  225. 
Miquon    (See  Onas),  26,  198. 
Mnemomic    Records,    151. 
Mohamed,  49. 
Mohawks   (tribe),  95,  210. 
Mohawk  River,   80. 
Mohegans    (Wolves),  73,   183. 
Mongols,   71. 
Moningwunkauning,   130. 
Monster,   156. 
Monsters,    45. 
Montana,  216,  228. 
Montgomery,  Gen.,  146. 
Mooney,  William,  144,  145. 
Montreal,   198. 
Moore,  Sir  Thomas,  86. 
Moors,   83. 

Morgan   (Col.  Geo.),  21,  22,  198. 
Moravians,  21. 
Morton,  Dr.,  49. 



Mound,  fortified,  49. 
Moundbuilders,    66,    68,    69,    177, 

202,    203,   218. 
Mound   Rites,    203,    210. 
Munsi    (Minsi),   222. 
Muscodesh      (See     Fire     People; 
Mascoutens,  Fox,   Sauk),  48,   100, 

Mushkisiwi,  130. 
Muskingum  River,  21,  99. 
Muskoki  (See  Coweta),  36,  60,  81, 

86,  99,   108,   184,  211,  213,  224. 
Muskwakiwak,  222. 

Nadowe-is-iw  (Dakotas),  80,  114, 

Nahuas,  49,  64. 
Naka   Powa    (Snake   Priest),   46, 

47,  48,   161. 
Nakomis    (earth),   103. 
Namaesipu      (Nemisipi     or     Fish 

River),   65,   202. 
Nanaboush,    19,   44,   45,    121,    132, 

156-159,  230. 
Nana-Ishtohoolo,   120. 
Nantines    (fairies),  43. 
Nanticokes     (tribe),     70,     71,     73, 

179,  224. 
Narragansetts    (tribe),   135. 
Natchez   (tribe),  60,  81,  139,  211, 

National  Boundaries,  20. 
Naumbeg   (Salem),  141. 
Neashiwikongk,   130. 
Nebraska,  217,  229. 
Nectam     (See    Nakohatami),    48, 

152,   170,  200. 
Negawadzheu,  130. 
Negro  Slaves,  95. 
Nekohatami   (Title),  58,  152,  170, 

Nemakan.   See   Fish  River. 
Netawatwes  (Chief),  15,24. 
Netawayasink,    130. 
Nevada,    217,   229. 
New  Amsterdam,  97. 

New  England,  93,  97,  98,  135,  138 

New  Foundland,  91. 

New   Hampshire,   145,   128. 

New  Haven,  133. 

New  Jersey,  73,  87,  89,  93,  185,  228. 

New  Mexico,  216,  228. 

New   York,    74,    80,    99,    113,    145, 

217,   228. 
N.   Y.   Historical   Society,   155. 
Newisakkudezibi,    131. 
Niagara   Falls,   86,   186. 
Nika    (Brother),  124,  232,  233. 
Nika  Xube   (Men  of  Long  Ago), 

122,   232. 

See  also  Xobe  Path. 
Niniba  Weawan    (Calumet),  136. 
Niwigwassikongk,    131. 
Norsemen,  53,  62. 
North  Carolina,  100,  145,  217,  228. 
North  Dakota,  217,  228. 
Northerners    (Enemy),    172,    179, 

Norway,  73. 


Ofo    (tribe),  48,  266. 

Ohio,    228. 

Ohio  Valley,  17,  36,  37,  69,  72,  73, 

80,  88,  95,  97,  100,  102,  177,  204, 

206,  207,  212,  224. 
Ohio  River,  127. 
Ojibwav     (Chippewa),     63,     129, 

Oklahoma,  217,  228. 
Oki  (Wendat  Manito),  120. 
Omaha,  66,  203,  209,  225. 
Onas  (feather),  26,  31,  32,  34,  36, 

Oneidas    (tribe),   36. 
Onandagas   (tribe),  125. 
Opunnarke    (Delawares),  222. 
Open   Hand,    139. 
Opekasit   (king),  63,  64,  131,  201. 

See   Kings. 
Orapakes    (Va.),    131. 
Oregon,  218,  228. 
Orenda     (Iroquois    Manito),    27, 

Osages    (Wacace),   122,  209,  225. 
Osakiwug,   211. 
Osceola   (Chief),  112. 
Otali    (Cherokee),    184,    188,   211, 




Otter      Island       (Manitoulin      or 

Ottawa),   129. 
Ottawa,  97,  100,  106,  172,  22+,  230. 
Ottawa  River,  46,  63,   129. 
Otter  Rite,  129,  230,  234. 
Oto    (tribe),  209,  225. 
Outagamies,  222. 
Oxford   University,  72. 

Pacific  Coast,  78. 

Painted    Sticks     (Walam    Olum), 

148,  167. 
Panther  Manito,  132. 
Paris,  52. 
Peace   (Tamanend  Ideal),  25,  26, 

58,   114. 
Peace    King,    124,    125,    139,    140, 

Peace   Leaders    (See   Nakapowa; 

Tamanend),  50,  51. 
Peace   Pipe    (See    Calumet;    Pipe 

Bearer),  115,  136,  210. 
Peace   Festivals,   62. 
Peace  Tree,  32,  34. 
Peace  of  Augsburg,  86. 
Penn,  William,  11,  15,  25-30,  33- 

40,  45,   109,   114,   125,   142,    143, 

198,   199. 
Pennsbury,  35,  39. 
Pennsylvania,  68,  69,  73,  81,  100, 

145,   183,  228. 
Pepin,  49. 

Pequods    (tribe),   135. 
Persia,  49. 
Peru,   78. 

Philadelphia,  30,  31,  98,  109,  141. 
Piegans    (tribe),   232. 
Pike,   Gen.  Albert,   112. 
Pilgrim   Fathers,   30,   95,   96,   133. 
Pipe    Bearer    (Ambassador),    59, 

61,  69,  70,  137,  165,  171. 
Pipe     of    Peace,     125,     136,    210. 

(See   Calumet). 
Pirates,   35. 
Pittsburg,   24. 
Plantagenets,  67,  72. 
Plymouth,   97. 

Pohegans    (Delawares),   222. 
Pokhapokhapek     (Great     Lakes), 

(Sault  St.   Marie),   162. 
Pokanoket  (Salem,  Mass.),  141. 
Poles,  71. 

Pontiac    (king),    103,   204. 
Ponca    (tribe),  209. 
Population,   Indian,   228. 
Postal    Service,    31. 
Potomacs    (tribes),  39,  104. 
Potawatomies     (tribe),    100,    108, 

Popes,  52,  54. 
Powau,    135. 
Powako    (Priest    Snake,    enemy), 

Powhattan,  93,   131,   133. 
Powow   Dance,   121. 
Prairie  Du  Chien,  200. 
Prayer   Sticks,    136. 
Praying  Indians,  133,  134. 
Priests  House,   (See  Midewiwan), 

3,  26,  118. 
Prophets    (Seers),   139. 
Protestants,  86,  87. 
Providence,  R.   I.,  96. 
Pueblos,  53. 
Puritans,  132. 

Quakers,  26,  35. 
Quapaw,  203,  209,  225. 
Queen  Anne's  W,ar,  99. 
Quichas,   62. 

Rafinesque,   Dr.   Constantine,    148, 

Rainey  River,  Canada,  46,  65,  200, 

Raleigh,  Sir  Walter,  93. 
Red  Cliff,   (Wis.),  130. 
Red    Score     (Walam    Olum),    43, 

148,   189^ 

Metrical      Version       (English), 

Book  I   (Genesis),  154. 

Book  II   (Flood),  156. 

Book  III  (Tula;  The  Crossing), 

Book   IV    (Wars   with   Dakotas 
and    Moundbuilders),    164. 

Book  V  (To  the  Atlantic),  177. 



Red    Indians     (Algonkin    races), 

69,  206. 
Red  Jacket   (chief),  125,  126,  128, 

Redpath    (historian),   118,   134. 
Red   Cloud    (chief),   113. 
Religion    (See  Tamanend ;   Mide- 
wiwan),    25,    26,    56,    117,    128, 
140,   141,  217,  232. 
Religious  Intolerance  of  Colonies, 

30,    134. 
Renaissance   (European^  71,  77. 
Rhode    Island,    96,    97,    141,    145 

Richard    Couer   d'Lion,   70. 
Ridley,  Nicholas,  86. 
Rienzi,  72. 

Robert  Bruce,   71,   72. 
Rocky  Mountains,  47,   79,  232. 
Roger    Bacon,    71. 
Roger   Williams    (see   Williams), 

96,  97,  134,  206. 
Roman  Empire,   52,   64,  72. 
Roman   Nose    (Chief),   113. 
Rudolph  of  Germany,  72. 
Russia,  52,  62,  71. 
Rurick,   52. 

Saapakweshkwaokongk,  131. 

Sacred  Pipestone  Quarry 

(Minn.),  136. 

Sachem,   145. 

Sagamore,   145. 

Sagonyutha    (Chief),   77. 

Sakim    (King,    a   Title),    58. 

Sakimaxon,  32,  199. 

Saladin,    69,    70. 

Salamanca    University,    73. 

Sand  Island,  Ky.,  211. 

Sand   Mountain,   130. 

Salem,  Mass,  41. 

Salt,   53,   168. 

Saponi    (tribe),  206. 

Sault  St.  Marie,  48,   130. 

Savonarola,   84. 

St.  Andrew's  Society,  18. 

St.  Bartholomew   Massacre,   87. 

St.   David's   Society,   19. 

St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  70. 

St.   George's   Society,   19. 

St.   John's  River,   86. 

St.    Lawrence    River,    44,    45,    81, 

129,   217. 
St.  Louis,  71. 
St.  Louis  River,   130. 
St.  Mary's,  Maryland,  96,  141. 
St.  Paul,  Minn.,  54,  222. 
St.  Tammany  Society,  19,  40,  142. 
St.  Tammany,  19,  40,  142-145. 
Saracenes,    52,    67. 
Sassoonan,   39. 
Sauks    (Sac  tribe),   48,    108,    111, 

112,   223. 
Savannah  River,  80,  81. 
Saxons,  51. 
Scioto   River    (Ohio),    37,    70,    88, 

100,    188,    211,    223. 
Scotch,  56. 
Scotland,   72. 
Sea  Monsters,  157,  158. 
Seminoles    (tribe),    116,    224. 
Senecas   (tribe),  77,  214. 
Servetus,  Michael,  86. 
Shagawmokongk         (Shagomigo), 

Shageskihedawanga,   130. 
Shakamaxon   (Pa.),  32,  199. 
Shayabing    (Jersey   "Shore"),    35, 

Shawnees    (tribe),   36,  70,  71,  73, 
86,   88,    100,   101,   104,    106,   108, 
176,  179,  185,  188,  223. 
Shinaking    (Mich.),   163   et  seq. 
Shooting  Spirit  Power,  121. 
Silisians,  71. 

Siksika  Confederacy,  200,  222. 
Sioux,  36,  43,  47,  51,  52,  54,  55,  60, 
62,   63,   68,   72,   78,   80,   81,   111, 
114,  115,  119,  120,  121,  123,  177, 
199,  201,  206,  207,  211,  223,  225, 
232,  233,  234. 
Sitting  Bull    (chief),  114. 
Six   Nations,   99. 
Smith,    Capt.    John,    93,    130,    131, 

140,    150. 
Snake  (an  enemy),  48. 
Snake  (sacred).  See  Great  Snake: 

Black  Snake. 
Snake    Island,   47,    161,    152,    164. 
Snake  Land,  48,  60,  166. 
Snake  Mound,  164,  165. 



Sons  of  Liberty,   143. 

South  Carolina,  228. 

South  Dakotah,  218,  228. 

Spanish,   86,  91,  208,  209,  210. 

Spanish   Armada,   88. 

Spain,  49,  54,  73,  83. 

Squeer's   Translation,    149. 

Star  Chamber,  30. 

Stone  Men   (Assiniboines),  47,  62, 

166,  172,  179,  180. 
Sun  Salt  Sea,  73. 
Superior    (Lake),  48. 
Susquehannas,    35,    36,    39. 
Susquehanna  River,  10,  35,  72,  73, 

74,  181,  182. 
Susquehannocks,   74. 
Sutton   Benj.   J.,   201. 
Swedes,   30,   31,   97. 
Sweden,   73. 
Switzerland,    86. 
Syria,  49. 


Talaga  (Cherokees),  36,  67,  68, 
69,  72,  77,  81,  86,  100,  173,  174, 
175,  178-180,  197,  203,  206. 

Talega   Mountains,    181,    188. 

Talega    River    (Ohio),    180. 

Talega  War,  36,  66,  177  et  seq., 

Talligewi,   173,  177,  205. 

Talamatans  (See  Hurons;  Wen- 
dats),  46,  65,  66,  69,  74,  86, 
108,  174-177,  185,  186,  205. 

Tallysticks,  145. 

Tamanend    (white).  See  Morgan. 

Tamanend  I,  11,  50,  55,  57,  58,  59, 
60,  61,  64,  142,   170,   194,  212. 

Tamanend  II,  11,  78-83,  86,  182, 

Tamanend  III,  11,  15,  25-41,  109, 

141,  142,  143,  198,  199. 
Tamanend   Ideal,    30,   40,   63,   66, 

79,  83^  84,  91,  99,   104-107,   124, 

142,  147. 

Tammany  Society,  40,  144. 

Tapakweikak,  131. 

Tawas    (tribes),   63,   65,   86,    180, 

181,  182,  186,  223. 
Tecumseh    (king),    110,    126,   204, 


Temples  (Midewigans),  139,  230, 

Tennessee,   36,   81,   205,   206,   228, 

Texas,  78,  228. 
Thatcher,  Indian  Biographer,  124, 

Thompson,  Gen.,  111. 
Thorfin  Karlsefne,   62. 
Three  Fires,  62,  100,  223. 
Thunder  Birds,   18. 
Timourlane,  72. 
Tolan,  62. 
Toltecs,  49,  62. 
Tonga-Wakon     (Giver    of    Life; 

Sun),  122,  138,  232. 
Treachery,  112,  118,  135. 
Treaties — Great  Miami,   106. 
Ft.    Harmer,    107. 
Holston,   107. 
Hopewell,    106. 
Ft.    Johnson,   31,   103. 
Ft.    Mcintosh,    106. 
Ft.    Stanwix,    103,    106. 
Philadelphia,  107. 
Penn,  Win,  33. 
Transvlvania   University,   148. 
Trenton,   N.   J.,   35. 
Tsalike,   68,  205,  224. 
Tree — See    Peace. 
Tshiwitowi,    130. 
Tula     (Turtle    Island),    45,    157, 

158,   159,   160  et  seq. 
Tula    (Mexico),  49. 
Turks,   77,   87. 
Tuscaroras,  125. 
Tupak  Yupanik,  77. 
Turtles   Back,  45,   158. 

(The  Earth). 
Turtle  Country,  154,  155. 
Turtle  (Tribe),  22,  25,  46,  63,  98, 

161,  163,  179,  185,  187. 
Turtle  River,  200. 
Tuscaroras    (tribe),    101,    125. 
Twighttwees,   127. 

Unamini     (Unami),    the    Turtle 

Tribe,  210,  211. 
Uncas   (chief),  96,  98. 



United    Colonies    of    New    Eng- 
land,  96. 

Universal    Mysteries    (See    Mide- 
wiwan ;  Wakon-Kitchewa), 


Upper     Ohio     Valley      (Talaga- 
land).     See  Ohio  Valley. 

Utah,   218,   228. 

Utagaming  (Fox  or  Outagamies), 


Venice,   72. 

Verizano,  91,  150. 

Vermont,  228. 

Vinland,  60. 

Virginia,     81,     93,     95,     98,     131, 
142,    1+5,   203,   228. 

Vladimir,    62. 

Voltaire,   33. 

Wabash  River,  89. 
Wabanaki    (Abnaki),   73,   183. 
Wacace  (Osages),  135. 
Wakonda     (Sioux     Manito),     27, 

120,  121,  122. 
Wakon  Kitchewa   (Priest  House), 

44,  120',  122,  231,  232. 
Wakon      Powako      (Holy     Priest 

Snake),  43,  44,   155. 
Wakon  Tebe    (Holy  House.     See 

Cave    Place),    a    cemetery,    54, 

Wampum,  34,  77,  95,   138  et  seq., 

182,  207,  208,  234. 
Wallabout  Bay,  146. 
Walam  Olum. 

Delaware  Text,  189. 
A — 192. 

Metrical    English    Version,    154. 
Wapahoning    (Ohio),  72,   179. 
Wappengers,  97. 
War   (Indian  View),  128. 
War,  Red  vs.  White  Indians,  69, 

War  of  1812,  146. 
War  of  Roses,  77,  79,  82. 

War,  Great  Snake,  16,  43,  49,  50, 

War — See  Civil;  Talega;  French- 
Ward,  Dr.  Alexander,  148,  206. 
Washington,     George,     143,     145, 

Water  Roads,  78. 
Wayne,   Gen.   Anthony,   108,   109, 

127,  212. 
Weber  (James,  Delaware  Chief), 

Wecacoae    (Philadelphia),   30. 
Weheequickhon,  39. 
Weewhinhough    (Chief),  37. 
Wendats     (Wyandottes,    Hurons, 

Talamatans),  46,  66,  74,  81,  92, 

99,  120,  211. 
Welsh  Indians,  206,  217. 
West,  Going,  231. 
West    Virginia,    86,    228. 
Western  Division,   66,   69,  71,  78, 

80,   86,   98,   99,    108,    131,   199. 
White   Indians,   69,  206. 
White    Eyes,    Capt.,    15,    23,    105, 

White  Eyes,  George,  22,  23. 
White   Salt  Lick    (Ohio)    72,   179. 
White's    Coming     (to    America), 

91,    184,    189. 
White   River    (Indiana),   70,   126, 

Wigwam,  40,  144. 
Wikewedwongga,    130. 
Wikupbimish,   130. 
William  the  Conqueror,  64. 
William  the  Lion,  69. 
Williams,  Roger,  96,  97,  134,  135. 
Winikaking   (Pennsylvania),   182. 
Winnebagoes   (tribe),  68,  80,  110, 

111,   209,  225. 
Winnepeg  Lake,  46,  209. 
Wisawana   (Great  Meadow,  la.), 

55,   57,    170,   200. 
Wiskinskie,   145. 
Witches,   233. 
Witchcraft,   31,   132,  233. 
Wisconsin,  130,  218,  228. 
Wolf   (tribe).   (See  Minsi,  Mohe- 

cans),  22,  46,  161,  162,  163,  183, 




Wopatha    (Chief),    36. 
Wyandottes     (Wendats),    65,    99, 

106,  108,  226. 
Wyoming,   218,   228. 

Xobe    Path     (The    Milky    Way), 
232.      (See  Nika  Xube). 

Yanokies  (Iroquois  for  New  Eng- 
enders),  19,   198. 

Yellow  River.  (See  Wisawana), 
13,  55,  56,  58,  170,  200,  211. 

York,  Duke  of,  27. 

Yucatan,  62. 

Yu  Ho  Canal,  73. 


SPIESS,  Mathias 

The  Story  of  Wimneeneetunah 

83  Pages  Illustrated  Binding,  Cloth  Price  $1.00 

To  many  millions  of  Americans,  young  and  old,  the  word  "Indian" 
brings  forth  a  vivid  mental  picture  of  a  ruthless  savage,  ever  readj 
to  scalp,  plunder  and  raid. 

This  impression  prevails  because  all  that  is  written  about  the  In- 
dian, was  written  by  his  enemy,  the  white  man.  Because  of  lack  of 
a  written  language,  the  Red  Man  could  not  convey  to  posterity  his 
story  of  the  conflict  which  developed  between  the  two  races  for  the 
possession  of  the  land. 

In  the  words  of  the  author:  "All  that  the  Indian  did  to  the  white 
man  is  recorded  but  much  of  what  the  Whites  did  in  return,  is  for- 
gotten. When  the  settlers  won  in  battle  in  their  attempts  to  extermi- 
nate the  natives,  it  was  heralded  as  a  glorious  victory.  But,  when 
the  Indians  killed  white  men  in  defense  of  homes,  family  and  coun- 
try, all  this  was  recorded  as  a  massacre." 

The  author's  own  summary  of  why  most  historical  accounts  incom- 
pletely depict  the  Indian  as  an  unfriendly,  brutal  savage,  is  of 

"After  many  years  of  research  and  study,  I  concluded  that  the 
Indian  as  pictured  in  history  is  a  portrayal  of  him  as  he  was  AFTER 
he  had  tasted  the  white  man's  fire  water  and  had  forfeited  freedom, 
land  and  hunting  grounds.  That  portrayal  pictures  the  Indian  after 
he  had  realized  his  losses   and  hated  the  white  foreigners." 

This  book  by  Mr.  Spiess  has  a  double  purpose: 

First:  to  entertain  with  an  absorbing  tale  of  true  love  between  a 
ship's  cabin  boy,  and  an  entrancing  Indian  princess.  Their  romance 
has  become  a  famous  tradition,  ante-dating  even  the  classic  of  "The 
Courtship  of  Miles  Standish"  and  being  fully  as  eventful. 

Second:  to  right  a  great  wrong,  which  might  well  be  termed  "the 
Great  American  Injustice."  In  the  words  of  the  author:  "Since  the 
Indians  left  no  records,  this  book  was  written  as  an  appeal  to  modern 
civilization  to  call  a  halt  in  further  misrepresentation  of  a  race 
without  whose  friendship  and  hospitality  to  the  white  settlers,  the 
history  of  New  England  would  never  have  become  what  it  is." 


SCOTT,  Colonel  R.  G. 
Indian  Romances 

141  Pages  Binding,  Cloth  Price  $1.50 

We  think  of  Indians  as  a  race 
Cruel,   treacherous,  deceitful,  base. 
Par  below  the  paleface  race  today, 
In  tribal  strife  in  war  in  every  way. 
It's  true  they  fought  as  all  men  fight 
For  what  to  them  they  deemed  as  right. 
Can  we  condemn  those  tribal  men 
For  thus  defending  tepee  homes,  when 
"White  men,  for  lesser  cause,  fight  and  slay 
Millions  of  their  fine  young  men  in  our  day? 

Years,  even  centuries,  have  slipped  into  the  eternity  of  time  since 
the  progenitors  of  the  Indian  race  set  foot  upon  the  earth.  From 
whence  they  found  their  way  upon  the  American  continent  is  specu- 

It  is  believed  by  some  that  the  South  American  Indian  is  of  African 
descent.  There  is  speculation  as  to  whether  the  North  American 
Indian  is  an  offshoot  of  the  South  American  or  whether  they  found 
their  way  here  over  Bering  Straits.  So  far  as  the  incidents  herein 
are  related  it  makes  but  little  difference  as  to  origin.  The  indi- 
vidual life,  the  romance  and  tragedy  of  peoples  is  far  more  interest- 
ing than  is  that  of  their  origin.  Especially  is  this  true  of  a  people 
who  had  cut  no  larger  figure  in  world  affairs  than  has  the  American 
Indian.  It  is  the  romantic  legend  and  individual  life  experience  of 
many  of  the  Indian  race — male  and  female — who  played  an  interest- 
ing part  in  human  affairs  that  is  to  give  interest  to  the  reader.  Since 
there  are  more  than  a  thousand  dialects  in  the  Indian  language,  prob- 
ably not  one  reader  in  a  thousand  is  acquainted  with  even  one  of 
them.  The  narrative  is  told  in  English.  This  makes  it  interesting 
to  all. 

Colonel  R.  G.  Scott  was  born  in  the  territory  of  Iowa  eighty-eight 
years  ago  and  had  for  a  neighbor  and  playmate  William  F.  Cody 
(Buffalo  Bill).  Antonio  LeCIaire,  interpreter  for  the  Government  in 
the  Black  Hawk  War  was  his  father's  friend.  LeClaire's  mother  was 
an  Indian;  his  father,  French.  To  LeClaire's  many  stories  of  early 
Indian  life,  Colonel  Scott  acknowledges  his  indebtedness;  also  for 
stories  of  Captain  Abraham  Lincoln  in  the  same  Black  Hawk  War. 

"The  author  shows  the  honor  of  the  red  man,  the  loyalty  and 
virtue  of  the  Indian  maiden,  making  a  misunderstood  people  stand 
out  in  a  new  and  true  light.  These  hitherto  unpublished  experiences 
In  Indian  life  will  add  to  racial  understanding." — Christian  Advocate. 


WEAR,  George  W. 

Pioneer  Days  and  Kebo  Club  Nights 

156  Pages  Binding,  Cloth  Price  $2.00 

To  anyone  surfeited  with  modern,  sophisticated  fiction,  PIONEER 
DAYS  AND  KEBO  CLUB  NIGHTS  offer  a  pleasing  diversion.  The 
volume  is  a  series  of  tales  of  Bakersfield,  California,  and  other 
extraordinary  incidents,  reminiscent  of  the  days  when  the  West  was 
young  and  "a  man  for  breakfast"  marked  the  usual  beginning  of  "a 
perfect  day." 

The  author  has  lived  in  the  West  for  sixty  years  and  has  rubbed 
elbows  with  characters  who  were  equally  as  rough  and  ready  as  the 
fictionally  famous  "One-eyed  Mike"  and  "Three-fingered  Pete."  From 
this  long  and  ripe  experience  has  been  garnered  a  thrilling  grist  of 
human-interest  anecdotes  concerning  the  West's  most  colorful  figures. 

Vividly,  and  in  a  style  both  crisp  and  breezy,  he  describes  some 
of  the  gun  battles  of  half  a  century  ago,  and  many  hair-raising  con- 
tacts with  the  roving,  uncivilized  Indian. 

In  a  summary  of  little-known  characteristics  of  the  red  man  he 
relates  an  experience  with  one  who  was  starving.  "He  was  emaci- 
ated, parched  of  skin  and  apparently  about  seventy.  After  he  had 
consumed  the  entire  carcass  of  a  deer,  he  was  metamorphosed  into 
a  husky  young  brave  of  twenty-three.  To  determine  the  age  of  an 
Indian  you  must  know  when  he  has  last  eaten." 

In  the  "minutes"  of  the  strictly  informal  Kebo  Club,  that  met 
nightly  and  barred  no  one  sociable  enough  to  walk  up,  take  a  seat  in 
the  crowd  and  tell  a  story,  are  recounted  many  strange  episodes.  They 
cover  a  wide  range;  the  whimsical,  the  humorous,  the  ironic  and  the 

Bakersfield,  California,  of  fifty  years  ago  was  typically  "wild  and 
woolly."  "When  I  arrived,"  writes  the  author,  "a  friend  told  me  it 
was  a  sickly  place  and  that  a  fly  could  not  live  there.  He  was  mis- 
taken! I  found  millions  of  'em;  all  with  large  families.  Today, 
there  isn't  a  more  healthy  or  more  equitable  climate  in  the  United 

The  author  is  a  veteran  newspaper  man  and  writer  of  books. 

"There  are  pleasing:  contrasts  in  the  stories  presented,  pathos  and 
humor  alternating,  and  any  one  who  lived  in  Bakersfield  between  the 
late  '70a  and  the  beginning:  of  the  new  century  will  find  genuine 
pleasure  in  what  the  village  editor  of  that  time  now  presents." 

— Bakersfield  Californian. 


STUBBINS,  Thomas  Alva 
The  Story  of  the  Tomb  of  Gold 

93  Pages  Binding,  Cloth  Price  75  cents 

THE  STORY  OF  THE  TOMB  OF  GOLD  is  hard  to  classify.  It 
cannot  all  be  fancy,  for  there  must  have  been  some  facts  upon  which 
it  is  built. 

The  narrative  opens  with  two  men  sitting  before  a  grate  fire.  They 
are  old  friends  renewing  their  friendship  after  some  years  of  separa- 
tion.    Harry,  the  visitor,  tells  the  tale  to  his  companion. 

He  begins  his  account  by  going  back  to  the  last  decade  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  A  band  of  pioneers  are  headed  into  the  wilder- 
ness, coming  from  the  Atlantic  coast.  They  make  their  final  stop 
on  the  banks  of  the  beautiful  Susquehanna  River. 

The  settlement  is  made  and  the  efficient  dreamer  in  their  midst 
gives  them  a  motto  and  in  this  motto  there  is  the  incentive  that  leads 
them  forward  into  great  prosperity.  It  brought  peace  between  them 
and  the  Indians.  Sidney,  the  name  they  gave  their  settlement — yes, 
Sidney  is  still  on  the  map  and  its  citizens  may  think  entirely  too 
much  so  when  they  read  this  story — grew  into  a  thriving  little  city. 
The  efficient  dreamer  died  and  the  "Sidneys"  fell  from  their  lofty 
estate  into  the  very  depths. 

Time  passes.  The  Civil  War  with  its  revealing  results  as  to  the 
gradual  slipping  of  "Sidneys"  is  told.  Time  passes.  The  World 
War  comes  and  goes,  and  then  an  alchemist,  in  his  ionely  apart- 
ment, in  New  York  City,  discovers  the  secret  sought  for  through  the 
ages,  how  to  transmute  baser  material  into  "the  lure  of  the  ages" — 
Gold.  After  months  of  search  this  alchemist  finds  helpers,  for  he 
must  have  helpers  to  put  through  his  plans,  in  these  "Sidneys." 

The  brilliant  Secretary  of  the  Department  of  Social  Relations  of 
the  Congregational  Churches,  Helen  G.  Murray,  says  of  THE 

"I  was  very  much  Impressed  with  it.  It  deals  with  those  impossible 
things  which  a  writer  like  yourself  makes  highly  probable.  I  don't 
know  how  you  do  it — it  is  because  you  are  dealing  with  basic  truth, 
of  course,  that  you  are  able  to  subordinate  incident  to  something 
greater.  Perhaps  subordinate  Is  not  the  word  I  should  use.  Sublima- 
tion is  probably  more  nearly  what  you  have  accomplished." 

YM.  H.  STRW*6